Many people have spotted pigment spots or have seen them on the skin of other people. At first glance, changes in color on the skin seem to be a harmless sign of a cosmetic defect. Doctors-dermatologists believe that the spots need to be examined, because some of them signal a metabolic disorder and an early stage of the disease. In this article we will shed light on the question of the causes and treatment of pigment spots on the face, arms, legs and other parts of the body.
What are pigmented spots
Normally, the upper epithelium of human skin contains a certain amount of coloring matter - melanin. Under the influence of ultraviolet irradiation, the amount of pigment in the epidermis of the skin increases. Sometimes individual parts of the epidermis accumulate an excessive amount of melanin without exposure to the sun's ultraviolet. Such areas of skin with visible morphological features are called pigment spots.
The area of melanosis( pigmentation spot) becomes more vulnerable to wrinkles formation, the cells are characterized by a lower water content, the whole spot to the touch has a coarser surface.
If pigmentation spots in some cases were not masked for melanoma, i.e.cancers of the skin, there were no reasons for appealing to the clinic about the appearance of a pigmented spot. The danger of cancer education forces a person to consult a doctor and to recognize the type of pigmentation of the skin.
The reasons for the appearance of age spots on the face and body in an adult and a child are described in this video:
The morphology of the pigmented skin formations is based on the morphological features of the spot: size, color, vascularity under the formation, etc.
Freckles are the leastlarge formations. These formations can appear both in adults and in childhood. The name of this variety of pigmentation spots justifies itself: melanoses appear in spring due to a longer stay in the sun than in the winter.
Appearance of freckles should be considered a protective reaction of the body to excess ultraviolet rays. The most vulnerable to the appearance of freckles are people with light skin color. The most frequent places for the appearance of freckles are places with undisguised clothing( face, hands).
There are two types of freckles: they appear as a result of prolonged sunburn and congenital type.
- The first variety is much larger, more saturated with dark color, torn edges and asymmetry.
- A distinctive feature of simple freckles is a lighter shape and shallower size.
The second type of pigmented spots are the nevi, known under the common name of moles or birthmarks. Forms, location and size of moles are not subject to patterns. Their color varies from red to brown and black.
Birthmarks do not first protrude above the surface of a non-pigmented area, subsequently represent a convex surface that remains constant in size and color until the end of the patient's life. Danger is represented by those birthmarks that experience frictional force from clothing or other skin areas: the back surface of women, skin folds in the armpits, inguinal folds, etc.
Over time, moles under the influence of physical effects and ultraviolet radiation can degenerate into malignant tissue. In this case melanosis turns into melanoma, the treatment of which is not always crowned with success. For this reason, all the birthmarks on the body should be subjected to dynamic visual observation. Growth in education, discoloration, anxiety indicate a possible degeneration, therefore, they should immediately undergo a diagnostic examination. In a number of cases, a complete independent disappearance of the mole was found.
Chloasms are called such spots, which do not have bulges, but on the skin they come out with a clear contour. The color of the spots is more often brown in different shades: light, moderate brown, dark. Chloasma is prone to appear on the skin of the face, thighs and abdomen. The difference of the chloasma from other varieties consists in their mass character in a certain focus.
Often these spots accompany the process of pregnancy or inflammation in the pelvic organs in women. A person of any gender can detect them when using contraceptives, a solarium or sunlight. In the absence of these reasons, chloasma are one of the suspicions of serious hepatic pathologies( cirrhosis, hepatitis, etc.).
Rare varieties of chloasma are:
- dyschromia , when a strip of individual specks runs along the face along the cheeks or forehead;
- bronze with a specific shade, found in representatives of the Mongoloid race with a certain disruption of the combination of melanin, carotenoids, etc.;
- chloasma, surrounding the circular muscle of the mouth .Spots in the absence of treatment extend the focus to nasolabial folds.
If the spots have a small size on the skin surface of the face and a light brown color, its owner has a juvenile or elderly age, less often their appearance is associated with excessive sunlight. Such spots in medicine and cosmetology are usually called lentigo.
- Youth lentigos are of different sizes, sometimes their diameter reaches 1.5 cm. They can appear both singly and massively. The shape of the lentigo is also varied: from rounded to stellate. The fight with this kind of specks is unhelpful, because they disappear independently over time and do not pose a threat to health. Their appearance is in no way connected with the saturation of the sun's rays.
- Lentigo old people appear not only on the face, but also on their hands. They are distinguished by a darker color than in the youth. There are no links with oncological diseases and ultraviolet of the sun in senile lentigines.
- Solar lentigo also does not carry any danger, they are prone to appear in people of any age with prolonged exposure to ultraviolet sun or in a solarium. The localization of the solar lentigo is more diverse than in juvenile or senile spots: the face, arms, legs, stomach, chest, etc.
About treatment of pigmented spots will tell you this video:
Vitiligo is commonly called stains, devoid of pigmentation. More often they are located in the neck and limbs, but exclude the skin in any place of the body from the appearance of vitiligo should not be. The causes of their development are the most diverse of all varieties of spots:
- metabolic and hormonal disorders,
- mental and physical trauma,
- inherited predisposition,
- malfunctions of the immune system,
- abnormalities in the functioning of internal organs or their innervation.
Melanin in the cells of vitiligo decreases gradually, the spots first have a milky pink color, after which they finally whiten. Further development is in the direction of enlargement of the lesion focus. Exposing such spots to excessive sun exposure is not recommended because of the propensity of this type of melanosis to degeneration in melanoma.
Detection of the symptom
Usually every person who looks in the mirror, discovers pigment spots on his own. The exception is the spots located on the back, buttocks and other places inaccessible for daily inspection. In such cases, single people should examine themselves in the mirror every month from all sides.
When living with other people the body needs to be inspected by another person with the same frequency.
Possible diseases and pathologies
Perhaps the pigmented spot that disturbs the patient is a harmless formation in response to age or prolonged exposure to sunlight. Many cases of spots are associated with pathological processes in the body. To accurately determine the typology of the pigmented focus and the degree of danger can be a dermatologist. Consultations of an oncologist, therapist, gynecologist( for women), infectionist, immunologist are not excluded.
In the list of diseases causing skin pigmentation changes, there are:
- hepatic pathologies,
- inflammation in the uterus and ovaries,
- , oncological diseases,
- infectious processes,
- dermatological abnormalities.
And now let's find out how to quickly get rid of pigment spots on the face, hands and body at home and in traditional ways.
Methods to combat such a sign
If a dermatologist thinks the stain on the body is safe, but the appearance worries the patient, medical and cosmetology clinics offer the following services for the removal of pigment spots:
- peeling , which is based on the timely removal of the upper pigment layer atthe help of cosmetic means, the chemical action is an abrasive;
- cryotherapy - the process of affecting the mole or other pigment spots with the action of low temperatures. The procedure is not carried out for the mass removal of pigmented spots, as it leaves behind scar tissue;
- application of bleaching creams from pigmented spots is the most painless procedure, which has the disadvantage: low efficiency. The cream layer only masks the pigmented spot, but is not capable of eliminating it. The nature of the action of the cream is temporary;
- sunscreens and whitening whey;
- laser removal , has the disadvantage - high cost;
- dermabrasion , the principle of action is similar to peeling, but it is carried out with special brushes. Such a remedy for pigmentation spots received good reviews.
On how to remove pigmentation spots at home, this video will tell: