Enteritis is an inflammatory process in the cavity of the small intestine, and has a different etiology. Predominantly the development of this disease acts as one of the manifestations of other diseases. In follicular enteritis and other types of inflammation directed at the mucous membrane of the intestine.
The causes of the disease in children can be:
- Infection. This includes staphylococcal, follicular, dysentery and other types of enteritis.
- Physical. This includes ionizing radiation or radiation.
- Chemical. This includes uncontrolled use of medicines or their intolerance to the body.
- Alimensional. Abuse of sharp products.
- Allergic reactions.
- Toxic effect.
- Diseases of the digestive system.
Enteritis in children is simple enough to develop with hypothermia, hypovitaminosis, intestinal dysbiosis, reducing the resistance of the body to infectious diseases, the use of cold drinks and food that is rich in fiber.
Symptoms of enteritis in children
The signs of enteritis development in children include:
- In case of inflammation of the initial small intestine, the symptoms of infectious enteritis are of low severity. In other cases, the chair gets more frequent 15-20 times a day, flatulence starts, bloating and rumbling in the abdomen. The chair acquires a mushy state without the presence of pathological impurities, however, there are particles of not digested products. The volume of stool is increasing.
- Painful sensations in enteritis in a child begin to localize in the near-umbilical zone, and appear several hours after eating. The nature of the pain syndrome is different: the pain can be cramping, blunt and bursting.
- Extraintestinal manifestations: some of the features have an interrelation with a violation of the absorption process in the intestinal cavity. Children can be observed weight loss, rapid fatigue, decreased appetite and sleep disturbance. If the absorption of vitamins and minerals is impaired, the skin becomes dry and can begin to peel off, the hair becomes brittle and often falls out, the nails are exfoliated, the bruises appear quickly, the bones and muscles break down, and possibly the writhing of the brushes.
- General symptoms of intoxication: vomiting and nausea appear, body temperature increases to 39 degrees and above, there is a feeling of weakness, headaches, it becomes more irritable and lethargic.
Treatment of enteritis in children
Principles of therapy are:
- Therapeutic diet. In the case of a mild form of staphylococcal enteritis or another type of disease, nutrition that corresponds to the child's age is allowed, but the food itself must be boiled or cooked in a steam way. From the diet with enteritis in children excluded products causing irritant effect. At the infants with enteritis with natural feeding it is allowed to leave such food, however, for children-artenics it is recommended to switch to an adapted sour-milk mixture. If you follow a diet, you need to exclude fruits and vegetables that are rich in fiber, milk and cereals cooked on it, fatty meat and fish varieties, black bread and white bread crumbs.
- Antibacterial treatment. Antibiotics for enteritis in children are prescribed by ingestion, and if persistent vomiting is present, injection solutions are allowed. Antibacterial drugs are selected taking into account the sensitivity index of the causative agent of enteritis. The average duration of the course of antibiotics in children is a maximum of a week.
- Treatment of oral dehydration in a child is done by consuming salt solutions. To prevent dehydration, the amount of fluid used increases.
- Treatment with enterosorbents in children with staphylococcal and other type of enteritis can fix bacteria on themselves, and then remove them from the body.
- Enzyme administration.
- Phytotherapy. It should be noted that phytotherapy in children under 5 years of age should be applied very carefully, since it may cause an allergic reaction.
- Receiving probiotics. For children, the course is 1 month or more, and is mostly prescribed after antibiotic therapy.
- Symptomatic therapeutic measures aimed at eliminating the fever, pain and flatulence in the child.
- Vitamin therapy. The course for children is at least 2 weeks.
Treatment of enteritis in children, regardless of age, is performed only after a physical examination that can determine how severe a staphylococcal or other type of inflammation of the small intestine is, as well as correct and adequate therapeutic procedures.
Rotavirus enteritis is a viral type of the disease, mostly affected by children. Characterized by signs of general intoxication, lesions of the cavity of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as dehydration in infants. The disease has become widespread in a large number of countries in the world where more than 50% of intestinal disorders have been observed in children.
The causes of the development of rotavirus enteritis in children is infection with the corresponding bacteria - rotaviruses. They are easy to find in the river, lake or sea, as well as in underground waters. Bacteria are secreted together with calves for 3 weeks.
Infection of the child with rotavirus enteritis occurs in an alimentary way. Bacteria begin to accumulate and multiply in the cavity of the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as in the epithelial layer of the duodenum.
Symptoms of rotavirus enteritis are:
- The temperature of the body in children rises to 37.9 and above. In some cases, it can rise to 39 degrees. In a mild form of the disease, fever is absent.
- The stool acquires a liquid, watery state in the absence of blood and mucous impurities. In a more severe course, the secondary infectious disease is mainly deposited.
- Occurrence of vomiting and diarrhea.
- Symptoms of general intoxication may be absent or mild.
- Desecration for defecation is imperative, false - absent.
- Painful sensations in the perio-zone.
- Reduces the amount of urine.
In the process of treatment of rotavirus enteritis in children, diet, pathogenetic therapeutic measures, and a wide application of enterosorbents and enzymes are used. Preventive measures to prevent the occurrence of such a disease consist in the observance of rules of personal hygiene and isolation of the patient in the process of therapeutic measures.