The pancreas performs a number of important functions for the body. What is its main purpose, and what tasks does it perform?
It is known that the pancreas secretes the pancreatic juice necessary for the subsequent splitting of food into its components. Due to this, the food entering the stomach is processed into elements that later spread throughout the body.
This function of the pancreas is realized by pancreatic juice, which accordingly contains the enzymes necessary for the digestion process. Interestingly, the composition of this juice is mostly water, with a small amount of other substances. So, as a rule, the composition of pancreatic juice is approximately 98.5% water, the rest 1.5% organic elements. What is important, the acidity of the secretion of the pancreas should not be above the 8.5 pH limit, or vice versa, below 7.5 pH.
It should be noted that pancreatic juice is released during each meal, as it becomes the basis of the digestive process. Every day about 1.5 liters of fluid are released into the body of an adult. From organic substances in it enzymes, and also bicarbonates prevail.
Most of the enzymes that are contained in pancreatic juice are in an inactive state. They are activated by direct interaction with elements that are secreted by the intestinal mucosa, as well as by enzymes coming from the duodenum.
Pancreatic juice secreted by the pancreas is one of the basic elements of the digestive process. That is why it is so important that the regulation of the work of this organ is realized in full, and accordingly, the liquid necessary for the splitting of the food entering the stomach is produced in the proper volume. And in this case, an important role in the full functioning of the body is proper nutrition, as well as the absence of additional loads on the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, which invariably arises if the diet contains fatty and harmful food.
The secret secreted by the pancreas is one of the most important elements of the digestive process. Despite the fact that it contains organic elements, most of it consists of water, and has a number of features that are so important for the whole organism.
Pancreatic juice enzymes
Pancreatic juice contains many different enzymes, such as:
- Amylolytic. These include amylase, which hydrolyses the starch material before converting it into an oligosaccharide and maltose, i. E.disaccharide.
- Lipolitic. These enzymes are represented by lipase phospholipase A, as well as cholesterol esterase.
- Proteases. They are proteolytic and have many other substances: endopeptidase, exopeptidase and elastase.
In most cases, enzymes are secreted at the same time, but there are cases when they are exposed to cells of different types, they are secreted separately from each other.
Where does the pancreas secretion, where does it come from?
As soon as the food content moves from the stomach straight to the duodenum, the pancreas immediately starts working. The juice enters the duodenum with an approximate rate of 4.7 ml / min. It is necessary in order to adapt as soon as possible by secretion to the type of food taken.
It is interesting that different enzymes are secreted for different foods. For example: a large amount of carbohydrates in food can cause the appearance of a substance such as amylase in the juice. Amylase, as is well known, splits carbohydrates well.
Pancreatic juice looks like a colorless, clear liquid and, as previously described, neutralizes and alkalizes the acidic contents in the food in the duodenum, and also digests each kind of nutrient. In the absence of food, the substance is still released, but in smaller quantities.
What is the environment in pancreatic juice?
All enzymes in the pancreas are activated only in the alkaline environment. This is due to the fact that there are hydrocarbons in the juice. And their concentration in the liquid can vary in proportion to the rate of excretion. In the secretion itself there are sodium chloride, and also potassium. Hydrocarbonates take part in the neutralizing and alkalizing process in the stomach of the duodenum, clearing it of acidic food. The concentration of hydrocarbons and the concentration of chlorides are inversely related.