There are many causes of angina. Most often, the primary infection develops under the influence of external factors against the background of a weakening of the protective reactions of the body. Bacteria, all kinds of viruses and fungi, accumulating on the glands and in the oral cavity, form focal inflammatory reactions, which without subsequent treatment can subsequently cause damage to many organs.
Significantly less frequent angina is a consequence of existing diseases, and to reveal the true cause of pathological processes in the throat is quite difficult.
For the treatment to be successful, diagnostics and follow-up therapy should be carried out by experienced specialists. Self-diagnosis is often mistaken and leads to undesirable consequences.
Ulcerous necrotic formations in the oropharynx and tonsils can be either a complication of bacterial angina or a pathology caused by a change in blood composition.
If the blood sample shows a decrease or a complete absence of granulocytes, agranulocyte angina is diagnosed.
The organism in this case is not able to control the amount of opportunistic microbial flora in the upper respiratory tract, which leads to the multiplication of pathogenic microbes and causes inflammatory reactions.
Signs of sore throat
Causes of the disease
The exact causes of agranulocytosis are not yet defined, there are only a few versions of its origin:
- Bone marrow deformation under the influence of toxins.
- Allergic reactions.
- Hormonal effects.
- Taking some medications.
- Myelotoxic( bone marrow pathology).
- Immune( destruction of cells by antibodies).
- Idiopathic( indeterminate).
Aggravating factors, risk group
Along with possible causes of occurrence it is customary to consider a number of factors capable of increasing the likelihood of this disease manifestation:
- Ionizing radiation.
- Food poisoning.
- Radiation sickness.
- Chronic leukemia.
- Exposure to toxins.
- Infection of the blood.
- Typhoid fever.
Symptoms and signs
The disease can be manifested in acute, subacute and lightning-fast form.
- The acute onset is accompanied by a strong fever.
- As the infection spreads, the pain in the throat increases.
- Functions of the salivary glands are enhanced.
- Appears putrid smell from the mouth.
- In the focal zones ulcerative defects are formed.
- Ulcer-necrotic formations from the tonsils gradually spread to the oral cavity.
- General toxicosis develops.
- Further symptoms of stomatitis, gingivitis. Inflammation of the tongue is possible.
- If you do not take measures, then the destruction of bone tissue begins.
- In an advanced condition, the infection can spread to the lower respiratory tract and digestive system.
Agranulocytosis in children may be congenital or acquired. Symptoms are similar to the development of the disease in adults. The clinical picture is more pronounced, and the consequences of the disease are more dangerous. To the above signs are added:
- Strong gastrointestinal disorders( diarrhea with blood, bloating, vomiting).
- Inflammation of the nasal mucosa.
- Fainting, nonsense.
What is angina and how to recognize it, says Dr. Komarovsky:
If suspected of agranulocyte angina, the patient is delivered either to the infectious or hematological unit. The doctor at the initial examination may ask to clarify the prescription of the symptoms, the presence of chronic diseases and the names of the medicines used.
After a thorough examination of the pharynx, the following procedures will be required:
- Blood test( with agranulocytosis in the blood there is a decrease or absence of granulocytes).
- Urine analysis( protein, leukocytes and erythrocytes in urine).
- Smear from the zeva( identification of the pathogen).
- Serological methods( assessment of immune responses).
- Antibioticogram( identification of effective antibiotics for treatment).
- Bone marrow puncture.
- Radiography of the chest.
- Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity.
Differentiate angina with the following diseases:
- Acute leukemia.
- Typhoid fever.
- Ulcerous-membranous tonsillitis.
The photo of the throat in agranulocyte angina
The general rules of treatment include bed rest, refusal of heavy meals, copious drinking and compliance with all the recommendations of physicians.
Therapy is primarily aimed at improving the functioning of the bone marrow. It is also important to eliminate the infectious threat. Approximately about a month the patient is treated according to the following scheme:
- Nucleic acid sodium is intravenous( stimulates the production of leukocytes).
- Glucocorticosteroids( for inhibition of antibody functions).
- Activators of granulocyte production.
- Injections of cortisol.
- Blood transfusion.
- Sometimes, to control bleeding, it requires Vikasol or calcium chloride.
- The choice of vitamin complexes is focused on vitamins B and C.
- Antimicrobial medications( penicillin, ampicillin).
- Local treatment of ulcerative formations consists of rinsing and treatment of focal zones with special ointments, including glucocorticosteroids. For rinses use furatsilin, soda, a solution of potassium permanganate.
- Necrotized tissues are removed under local or general anesthesia.
- In the most severe cases, bone marrow transplantation is performed.
Cure agranulotsitarnuyu angina folk recipes can not. But as an additional treatment after the passage of the acute period, you can use the following natural products:
- The top film is removed from the aloe leaf, and a small piece of it is kept for 20 minutes behind the cheek. The leaves disinfect the oral cavity, facilitating the drawing of pus. Rinsings with potato and beet juice reduce inflammation in the throat.
- You can apply hot inhalation with medicinal herbs( sage, thyme, calendula, chamomile, St. John's wort).
- Garlic and onions prevent the reproduction of microbes.
- Using different recipes based on honey increases immunity.
How to treat sore throat, see in our video:
Physiotherapy is prescribed at the discretion of the physician, based on each case. Laser treatment in agranulocyte angina is contraindicated.
Features of treatment during pregnancy
At the first suspicions of sore throat, a pregnant woman should call an ambulance, which will take her to the hospital. When appointing an individual therapy, the physician repels from several factors:
- The form and stage of infection.
- The gestational age.
- The state of the immune system.
- Presence of intrauterine pathologies.
- Secondary or primary character of the disease.
Changes in the composition of the blood and the presence of purulent processes can lead to premature birth or to intrauterine pathologies. It is extremely important to begin treatment at the earliest stage.
The emphasis is reasonable on local preparations for regular rinses. Inhalations and other thermal procedures for future mothers are contraindicated.
When in hospital, it is important to carefully maintain personal hygiene. This will minimize the risk of parallel infection with other microbes.
Possible complications than dangerous disease
- Mental development disorder( in children).
- Toxic shock.
- Disorders of the genitourinary system.
Complications after sore throat:
Prevention and precautions when communicating with a patient
Since the causes of agranulocyte angina are not fully understood, there are no special preventive measures. Doctors advise:
- Limit contact with toxins.
- Monitor the quality of food consumed.
- Do not exceed recommended doses of potent drugs.
- Maintain the hygiene of the oral cavity.
Prophylaxis of the disease
Agranulocytic angina usually occurs in very severe form. The death rate in the case of this disease is fixed often enough, therefore the forecast can not be called favorable. These or other complications in advanced stages are inevitable, but with timely and adequate treatment, the sick person is fully able to return to normal life. Treatment terms are from one month and more.