Enteritis in humans is an acute or chronic type of inflammation in the small intestine, when the basic intestinal functionality is violated, that is, the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients. With enteritis in adults, the structure of the mucosa changes, which leads to a disruption of the normal synthesis of intestinal juice and barrier functionality of the intestinal walls.
Enteritis is divided into several types. In accordance with the localization are different:
- Isolated form of enteritis.
- Gastroenteritis in case of lesion of the stomach cavity.
- Enterocolitis in the defeat of the large intestine.
- Gastroenterocolitis with lesions of the stomach cavity and the entire intestine.
Also according to the degree of spread of the disease, enteritis is allocated:
- Total form.
- Ejunit - inflammatory processes of the jejunum.
- Ileitis - inflammatory processes in the ileal section of the small intestine.
For reasons that are causative agents of enteritis in adults, we can distinguish:
- Parasitic form.
- Infectious form.
- Medicinal and medicamentous form.
- Food Form.
- Toxic form.
- A form that appears due to a congenital anomaly or activity of enzymes.
The manifestations of enteritis
The acute form of enteritis predominantly has a turbulent course, but a rapid end and has such symptoms:
- Diarrhea is 1-2 to 10-20 times a day. In some cases, more.
- Presence of nausea and vomiting.
- Pain in the abdomen.
- Flatulence and rumbling in the abdomen.
- Increase in body temperature to 37-39 degrees.
- General malaise and the presence of headaches.
- Surface of the tongue.
- If there is severe diarrhea, then signs of dehydration - dryness of the tongue and mucous membrane, loss in mass, convulsions, are possible.
- In severe cases, the process of clotting, shock and coma is disrupted.
The chronic form of enteritis in adults predominantly has a different clinical picture of the symptoms, and is not as acute, but the duration can last long enough. For such a form of enteritis in humans, the following are characteristic:
- Diarrhea after eating.
- Weak pain in the umbilical zone.
- Rumbling and flatulence.
- Increased urge to defecate. The stool has a watery state of yellowish tinge with particles of not overcooked foods.
- The act of defecation brings uncomfortable sensations, the pressure index decreases.
- Anemia, osteoporosis is gradually developing, as the absorption of minerals is impaired.
- In the language there is a white coating with dental prints.
- There are signs of hypovitaminosis.
- The patient gradually loses weight, the development of dystrophy begins.
Diagnosis of enteritis
As a basis for the diagnosis, complaints and examination are performed by probing the abdomen and examining the stool characteristics. Supplement to diagnosing inflammation of the small intestine in humans is:
- Coprogram, which includes the delivery of stool, as well as a survey for the presence of viruses.
- A test for hidden blood impurities in feces and the presence of carbohydrates.
- General blood analysis for the determination of acute type of infection, anemia and leukocytosis, as well as acceleration of ESR.
- Biochemistry of blood with signs of protein starvation and lack of minerals.
- Radiographic examination in contrast.
- ultrasound of the pancreas and liver, in order to identify a combined pathology.
It is important to distinguish enteritis in a person from a different kind of pathology, which is accompanied by diarrhea, for example, thyrotoxicosis, addison's disease, ulcerative colitis and intestinal irritation syndrome.
Treatment of enteritis
The acute form of infectious enteritis is treated in a hospital. If this is a microbial infection, then antibiotics will be used, if the virus is treated only for the treatment of symptoms:
- Compliance with a diet where the basis is food in the form of a puree that is boiled and does not irritate the intestines.
- Control of dehydration by infusion of glucose and sodium chloride solutions.
- Combating toxicosis with Rheopoliglyukine and Hemodesis.
- Enzyme therapeutic measures.
- Tightening therapeutic measures.
- Correction of impaired microbial balance.
- Vitamins and immunotherapy.
In the chronic form of enteritis in adults, the treatment will be slightly different:
- The basis of nutrition is diet number 4, where all products that are irritants of the intestine are excluded. Requires eating foods rich in proteins and minerals, with the exception of coarse fiber.
- If the inflammatory processes are hereditary, then the diet is observed for life.
- Reception of enzyme preparations.
- Reception of correctors of intestinal motility during flatulence, nausea, hypermotorics.
- Admission of plant binders with persistent diarrhea.
- Reception of probiotics and biologics.
- Admission of multivitamins and mineral supplements.
Causes of enteritis
Enteritis as an independent disease can be met rarely. Mostly it develops from another ailment.
- are the causes of its occurrence: Enterovirus infectious causes that appear due to some varieties of viruses in the intestinal cavity. The source is the carrier of the virus or simply a patient in violation of personal hygiene rules and transmitted by airborne droplets.
- Salmonellosis predominantly occurs in gastroenteritis with the help of the Salmonella bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. They can get out of the food or if the hygiene rules are not respected.
- Escherichiosis infections are the most common causes in people who like to travel. The source of the disease becomes a sick person. The virus enters the body by eating contaminated food and by not following the rules of hygiene.
- The defeat of the intestine by parasites in humans. This includes enterobiosis, ascadidosis and giardiasis. You can get infected by eating contaminated food and not following the rules of hygiene.
- Irritable bowel syndrome in humans is a different form of gastrointestinal function disorder when there is a disturbance of peristalsis and juice production, as well as absorption of nutrients.
- The defeat of the liver and biliary tract in the case of disruption of the formation and outflow of bile, which causes the process of cavitary digestion and movement along the intestinal cavity. In addition, there is a multiplication of pathogens that do not harm in a healthy microflora. In this case, the appearance of gastroenteritis.
- The presence of acute or chronic gastritis, ulcerative form is also a cause for the development of noninfectious enteritis. Mostly develops gastroenteritis.
Enteritis for ICD 10
The classification of enteritis in humans varies, and each form has its own ICD code 10:
- The radiation form of noninfectious enteritis is caused by irradiation. In the ICD list 10 is listed as K52.0.
- Toxic form of enteritis is caused by poisoning with poisons or poor-quality food. It is worth noting that if you need to identify in adults, which toxic substance was caused by inflammation, an additional coding of external symptoms is used. In the ICD list 10 is listed as K52.1.
- Allergic and alimentary forms of enteritis in humans are caused by the use of certain foods not intolerable by the body. Hypersensitive food enteritis can also be referred to here. According to the ICD code 10 - K52.2.
- Other type of specified noninfectious enteritis. This includes gastroenteritis. The list is listed under the number K52.8.
- Noninfectious, unspecified enteritis in adults. This includes ileitis, ichnit. An exception is the infectious form. Has the code K52.9.
Crohn's disease in humans causes the occurrence of regional enteritis. So for the number K51 was included granulomatous enteritis. Ileitis in adults of different forms can develop on its background and refers to the number K50.0.
All varieties of enteritis have their classification due to the fact that not only the general symptoms differ, but also the clinical picture, etiology of appearance and severity of the disease. It is worth noting that the use of this classification is very convenient, as it provides an opportunity to accurately determine the option of treatment of the disease after diagnosis. In addition, the specialists were able to collect the most complete information on the pathologies presented here, which is an additional advantage for the doctors and patients themselves, who are given the opportunity to study the existing disease, the options for its treatment, and a possible prognosis.