Parkinson's disease: risk factors, signs, flow characteristics

Parkinson's disease is a degenerative pathology of the nervous system, which is accompanied by a loss of ability to control movements. The disease develops slowly enough, but most often it is characterized by a progressive course. To stop this process, it is very important to consult a doctor as early as possible.

Risk factors

The exact causes of the development of this disease have not yet been detected, but there are factors that may increase the likelihood of its appearance:

1. Aging. With the passage of time, the number of nerve cells in the brain decreases, which causes a decrease in the content of dopamine in the basal ganglia - this process is the basis for the development of pathology.

2. Hereditary predisposition. Although the gene responsible for the development of this disease has not yet been detected, there are patients whose relatives have been diagnosed with this pathology. The same can explain the cases of the disease in children.

3. Environmental impact.

This group of factors includes the effect of toxins, heavy metals, toxic substances, pesticides - all of which lead to the death of neurons, which undoubtedly causes the development of the disease.

4. Medications. There are neuroleptics that disrupt dopamine metabolism in the nervous system. This serves as a provoking factor in the development of the disease.

5. Damage and brain diseases. This includes injuries and encephalitis, which can disrupt the structure of the basal ganglia, which eventually becomes a factor in the onset of the disease.

6. Unhealthy lifestyle. To the development of pathology may result in such factors as inadequate nutrition, stressful situations, lack of sleep, beriberi.

7. Other diseases. Such pathologies as endocrine disorders, atherosclerosis, tumors, can become an impetus to the development of Parkinson's disease.

In our time, Parkinson's disease occurs more often. Modern treatment can improve the quality of life of people with this disease. What is the life expectancy of patients with Parkinson's disease

? What medicines are prescribed for the treatment of this disease, symptom relief and increase in the period of the person's active capacity, read this article.

Early signs of Parkinson's disease

Early symptoms of the disease appear gradually. The first symptoms of Parkinson's disease are not apparent, as a rule, a person begins to feel a general malaise and constant fatigue and may miss the onset of the disease. Individual patients may have initial signs - gait disturbance, small trembling handwriting, nasal in the head. Also a person can lose his thoughts or words in a sentence. Sometimes there are depressive conditions and irritability for no apparent reason.

A patient may encounter difficulties in performing daily activities - smoking a cigarette, tying shoelaces or buttoning buttons.

The early period lasts long enough, after which the classic signs of the disease appear.

Symptoms of

The manifestations of Parkinson's disease can be different - it all depends on the individual characteristics of the patient. One of the most noticeable signs is the appearance of tremors, although in some people it is absent. Also, a person can pay attention to the slowness of movements, stiffness of muscles, impaired coordination.

So, the main signs of the disease include:

1. Tremor. It has specific properties. As a rule, tremor is manifested in the form of rhythmic finger movements. In this case, first of all, the hands begin to tremble, although occasionally the tremor initially affects the foot or jaw.

2. Muscle rigidity. This symptom is noted in almost all people with this disease. Muscles are constantly in tension, as a result of which a person can complain of rapid fatigue and a sense of weakness. In this case, the patient often makes intermittent movements.

3. Motion retardation. This symptom has an unpredictable character. Sometimes a person can easily make any movement, at another time he can not do without outside help.

4. Movement coordination disorder. The danger of this symptom is that a person loses stability and at any moment can fall. Also, people with this disease often have a stoop, and they tend to lower their shoulders and tilt their head forward.

In addition, people with this pathology can experience:

  • depressive states;
  • emotional disturbances;
  • difficulty with chewing and swallowing;
  • speech disorders;
  • constipation, urinary incontinence;
  • skin problems;
  • sleep disturbances.

The first signs of Parkinson's Disease are revealed in the program "Live Healthily":

Disease without trembling

Parkinson's disease is most often accompanied by limb tremor - in most cases this symptom is the first manifestation of pathology. However, in some cases it may be completely absent or be negligible. This form of the disease is called akinetic-rigid. It occurs in approximately 33% of cases of pathology.

Differential and topical diagnostics of

It is very important to differentiate Parkinson's disease from pathologies accompanied by Parkinson's syndrome when diagnosing. The clinical features of this syndrome, which should call into question the presence of Parkinson's disease, include:

  • no tremor;
  • symmetry of motor disorders;
  • no effect from the use of levodopa preparations;
  • appearance of symptoms of peripheral autonomic failure.
The purpose of topical diagnosis is to determine the location and prevalence of lesions in the nervous system. This is done on the basis of an analysis of disorders of the nervous system found during a complex examination.

Classification of stages of Parkinson's disease according to Hen and Yar

This classification reflects the severity of the disease and includes a number of stages of the development of the disease:

0 stage. There are no motor disruptions at this stage.

I stage. Begin to appear unilateral symptoms of pathology.

II stage. It is characterized by bilateral signs against the background of the absence of postural violations.

III stage. Moderate postural disorders may occur, but a person is perfectly able to do without outside help.

IV stage. It is characterized by a significant loss of motor activity, although the person still retains the ability to move independently.

V stage. This is the last stage. In the absence of outside help at this stage, a person is confined to a bed or an armchair.

The person in the photo has symptoms of stage 2 Parkinson's disease.

In Moscow, there is a center for parkinsonism, in which patients are provided with comprehensive support.

About the organization of treatment of Parkinson's disease in clinic of Tyumen it is possible to read in this article.

Parkinsonism includes a number of individual diseases, including atherosclerotic parkinsonism, which causes this disease read in the article http: // bolezni-nevrologii /parkinsona/ parkinsonizm.html

The course of the disease

Parkinson's disease has a progressive nature, which means that over timethe patient's condition will deteriorate. But at the same time the development of pathology can last for several years, which makes it possible to talk about its slowed down flow.

The use of medicines also directly influences the development of the disease. In the arsenal of modern medicine, there are many tools that can affect the manifestations of ailment. Thanks to this, a person has the opportunity to live a full life for a long time.

Parkinson's disease refers to quite dangerous diseases, which have a serious impact on human activity. Therefore, it is so important to know what symptoms are typical for this pathology. Timely detection of signs and immediate treatment to a doctor will allow a person to live a full life for a long time.

About what processes in the brain cause Parkinson's disease, see the following video:

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