The human body is unique in terms of a set of organs, as well as organs are quite unique in their functions. It is very interesting in functional terms pancreas, which is involved in digestion and releases into the blood important hormones for human life. The most famous hormone is insulin.
Endocrine and exocrine functions perform special pancreatic structures called "islets of Langerhans."Characteristic features of the islets:
- have sizes from 0,1 to 0,3 mm;
- in the pancreas is 3% of its total volume;
- are permeated with tiny vessels, due to which they have an intensive blood supply.
Islets include exocrine and endocrine cells of different species. Each type produces its own kind of hormones that are involved in the digestive process and maintain a balance of important nutrients in the blood. Therefore, all islets represent a single functional whole.
Alpha cells of the pancreas
An important species of islets - alpha cells, which are of particular importance in the functions of the pancreas, their task is to produce a hormone glucagon. The peculiarity of glucagon is that it is a natural insulin antagonist and has completely opposite functions. A-cells break down the polymer molecules of sugar and secrete the resulting glucose into the bloodstream, feeding the body with the necessary energy. To ensure the energy supply of the body was full, they must continuously perform their functions. The content of alpha species in the total number of islet cells is quite high - more than 20%.
Pancreatic beta cells
The highest number among the islets are B cells, they are more than 70%, the maximum of the total number of islet elements. They perform an important function - they produce insulin, the main hormone in the work of islets. Beta cells in the pancreas structure have a large granularity, located in the central part of the islets. Their main task is to produce as much insulin as possible so that the sugar in the blood is at a normal level. Insulin helps the sugar to form glycogen, which no other hormone does in the endocrine glands. It is a unique hormone, and it performs a very important function that protects a person from diabetes mellitus.
Antibodies to pancreatic cells
One of the important signs of diabetes that is found in blood tests is the presence of antibodies to pancreatic cells. In the blood of a healthy person they are not, but the slightest presence of them indicates a predisposition to diabetes mellitus. Antibodies in the pancreas play a negative role - they degenerate beta cells, disrupt the balance of insulin and glycogen in the blood. This causes the formation of autoimmune diabetes type 1.This is considered a disease of young people, whereas type 2 diabetes is most often formed only with age.
Modern diagnostics allows by conducting tests:
- to determine predisposition to diabetes mellitus;
- make a timely diagnosis;
- recommend the right diet and preventative measures.
For analysis, blood taken from a vein is used. Subsequently, serum is released from the blood, which shows the presence of antibodies.
Regeneration of pancreatic cells
Foci of necrosis that appear after the death of beta-cells, today it is proposed to restore using the newest methods of treatment. Restore the functions of the pancreas can be through the regeneration of lost B cells, which is achieved by special therapy. It consists in the use of stem cells, which showed a high survival rate in the pancreas. After regenerating them in a new place, they manifest the functions of B-cells, begin to produce the same hormones. Thanks to this, shortly after transplantation, a person suffering from pancreatitis or diabetes mellitus starts to manage not only without medicines, but even without dietary nutrition.
Pancreas cell transplantation( transplantation)
Experiments show the possibility of transplanting islet cells that are taken in the organ donor's pancreas. Before transplantation, they are cleaned, processed and only then injected into the affected person's necrotic gland. Implantation of beta cells by infusion is very successful, they actively take root in a new place, start to produce insulin, fully perform the assigned functions. Advantages of the new treatment:
- reduces the need for continuous insulin administration;
- improves glucose levels in blood tests;
- reduces the risk of severe hypoglycemia;
- eliminates insensitivity to hypoglycemia.
The prospect of scientific development shows the possibility for sick people to get rid of the disease and lead a full-fledged active life.