Women often have mastopathy in the mammary glands. Mastopathy is diffuse and nodular.
Nodular mastopathy is a benign change of a dyshormonal origin, characterized by cystic and nodular formations in the dairy tissues.
Such a mastopathic form is characterized by the presence of mastalgic manifestations, seals in the breast tissues, hypersensitivity and swelling of the mammary glands, specific discharge from the nipples. Nodular mastopathy is also called localized adenomatosis - a fibro-cystic focal process in glandular tissues.
Nodal mastopathy processes most often develop due to deficiency of thyroid hormones or excessive secretion of prolactin and estrogens, which usually occurs for the following reasons:
- Hormonal disorders;
- Hereditary conditioning;
- Substance-related disorders;
- Irregular sex life;
- Pathological conditions of the reproductive sphere;
- Endocrine or genitourinary diseases;
- Frequent exposure to stress and strong psycho-emotional experiences;
- Aggressive ecology;
- Presence of all kinds of addictions like nicotine, alcoholic or narcotic;
- Unbalanced diet;
- Use of contraceptives and hormonal drugs without medical supervision;
- Traumatic factor, etc.
Similar pathology is typical for 30-45-year-old women, which experts attribute to the organic characteristics typical for women of similar age.
Mammologists distinguish several typical forms of nodal mastopathy:
- Leafy swelling;
- Intra-flow papilloma;
According to histological features, the nodular mastopathy ferruginous , fibrous and fibro-cystic forms are distinguished.
In addition, nodal mastopathic processes of simple and proliferative nature are classified, with proliferating mastopathy being regarded by specialists as a precancerous condition, because it is prone to malignization.
The initial symptom of the nodular mastopathic form is the appearance in the dairy tissues of characteristic nodular seals with clear boundaries.
These nodes differ mobility, do not have adhesions to the skin or nipples. Nodal seals can vary in size from millimeter to 2-3 cm.
Nodal mastopathy is characterized by no changes in lymph nodes. There may be discharge from the nipples, however, such a sign is far from mandatory.
Most often, the allocation is transparent or whitish, less often they have a greenish tinge. If the nipple secretes the secretion of bloody fractions, then this may indicate the development of breast cancer.
Sometimes the painful symptomatology is local in nature, manifested only in the chest, but let's say the option when it radiates to the shoulder-scapular region, armpits, etc. A typical feature of such mastopathy is the absence of knots when palpation in the lying position of the patient.
Diagnosis of mammary gland
Mastopathy of the nodal form often has a similarity with oncological processes, therefore diagnostics require a particularly careful approach. Typically, the diagnostic process is based on conducting such studies:
- Mammologic examination. Sometimes a doctor using traditional palpation can detect the presence of nodular seals. Sealed foci may be distinguished by a granular, lobed or smooth surface. If the mastopathy seal is located inside the duct of the gland, then when pressing on the nipple, a specific mucus may be released;
- Mammography. Often, mastopathy is detected when the images reveal strongly darkened zones with a homogeneous structure;
- Ultrasound examination. Such a diagnostic method allows to reliably determine the structural character, size, degree of vascularization of breast fermentation;
- Puncture. Nodal mastopathic form is often examined by puncture, then the biomaterial is sent for cytology. If necessary, an additional pneumocystography study is performed;
- A biopsy is also performed, this study usually helps to exclude the cancer process.
In addition, there is a doktografiya, laboratory tests to determine the level of hormones, etc.
Treatment of nodal mastopathy
Therapy for nodular mastopathy is usually conservative and operational.
As a rule, treatment is directed to the restoration of immune defense, thyroid activity, oppression of the effect of progesterone and estrogen hormone on dairy fermented tissues.
Drugs are used as medication:
- Antiestrogenic action( Toremifene or Tamoxifen);
- Combined contraceptives( Regulon, Diane-35, Lindineth-20, Ovidon, etc.);
- Gestagennye medicines( Progesterone, Dyufaston, Utrozhestan, Progestogel, etc.);
- Antagonists of the gonadotropin hormone( Buserelin, Zoladex, Diferelin);
- Hormones thyroid( Eutiroks, L-thyroxine);
- Preparations based on iodine( Jodomarin or Klamin);
- Homeopathic remedies( Mastopol, Mastodinon);
- Herbal medicines( Mammoleptin);
- Complexes of vitamins( Aevit, Triovit, etc.);
- Preparations of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory group( Diclofenac, Indomethacin, Aertal, etc.).
The course of therapy with the above drugs is on the order of 2-6 months. Finally, the duration of treatment is determined by a mammologist.
Surgical removal of nodular mastopathy is carried out if there are certain indications:
- If there is a suspicion of the cancer origin of the formation;
- When the size of the nodes or cysts more than 1,5-2 cm;
- With the tendency of cystic and nodular seals to grow.
The operation can be performed by removing nodes or by puncturing cystic lesions. If the cyst is punctured, then after its walls are sclerized. If the nodes are of a multiple nature, then partial removal of dairy tissue is carried out.
Postoperative sutures are usually removed in a week. Usually, after surgery, the patient undergoes a course of therapy for mastopathy.
Usually nodal mastopathic forms do not cause any complications. When a patient has a menopausal period, then her hormonal background stabilizes. As a result, mastopathic manifestations completely disappear and pathology is no longer a woman's concern.
Preventive measures are based on systematic self-examination, as well as on the annual breast examinations of a mammologist. In addition, timely therapy of inflammatory and endocrine pathologies is necessary.
Nodular mastopathy refers to very unpleasant diseases, and if you do not start treating it on time, pathology can become a prerequisite for cancer.
Therefore, women over 35 are recommended to undergo a mammography twice a year and perform self-examination on a monthly basis. Such procedures will help in a timely manner to detect changes in dairy tissues and begin to eliminate them.
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