Atrophic colitis of the intestine: causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, prevention

Atrophic colitis is a lesion of the tissues of the large intestine mucosa of inflammatory origin, in which their thinning occurs.

Self-contained atrophic colitis does not exist, it develops due to a prolonged course of chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa due to lack of therapy, its ineffectiveness or incorrect approach.

As a result, dystrophic changes are formed in the large intestine that cover the intestinal musculoskeletal system, which leads to a decrease in peristalsis, a narrowing of the lumen of the gut, a deterioration in the activity of the organ, and dysfunctional disorders of the colonic region.

A similar diagnosis is usually established after a histological examination of a biopsy specimen taken from the colon. This concept explains the nature of the changes that have occurred in the organ due to the long-flowing and neglected inflammatory process.

The atrophic picture of the changes does not in any way determine the cause and treatment of pathology, but is only used to determine the degree of the pathological disorders that have occurred. Therapy is prescribed depending on the etiology of the intestinal lesion and is aimed at eliminating the provoking factor.

Causes of development of

As already mentioned, the atrophic form of colitis is a consequence of the long development of inflammatory pathology in the absence of therapy or its incorrect organization.

Most often, atrophy and thinning of intestinal mucous tissues occurs against the background of ulcerative or pseudomembranous, allergic or infectious, ischemic colitis and Crohn's pathology.

In about a third of cases, atrophic colitis develops against the background:

  • Intestinal infections;
  • Prolonged and uncontrolled antibiotic therapy;
  • Alcohol intoxication;
  • Hypodinamy;
  • Unhealthy diet;
  • Aggressive-genetic predisposition may provoke the development of atrophic colitis;
  • Non-compliance with dietary principles in the treatment of gastrointestinal pathologies;
  • Frequent stressful conditions and nervous breakdowns;
  • Promotes inflammatory atrophy of the intestinal mucosa and chemical intoxication;
  • Long-term abuse of laxatives;
  • Infringement of the treatment regimen of intestinal infectious pathologies, etc.

Initially, when inflammatory processes in the intestine only gain momentum, colitis is formed of a catarrhal type, in which there is a thickening and hyperemia of the mucous lining membranes. On their surface bleeding and exudative masses are observed. Mucous with catarrhal colitis swells, bleeds and infiltrates.

Symptoms of

Pathology proceeds in three stages, each of which is distinguished by its clinical picture.

  1. The first stage of development of atrophic colitis is characterized by mild severity. The patient can lose about 7 kg in weight, and intestinal disorders are insignificant. The development of muscular atrophy of the large intestine is weak, and therefore colonic function without consequences is restored with the help of strict adherence to the dietary nutrition program.
  2. The second stage of colitis is accompanied by more significant weight loss , against which the patient develops anemia and hypovitaminosis. Similar problems are associated with serious violations of intestinal absorption.
  3. In the third stage, the pathology reaches the state of diffuse atrophic colitis , in which the disorders reach severe forms, malabsorption syndrome is present, inflammatory lesions spread to neighboring tissues. Pathology is so severe that the only treatment option is to become a large intestine resection.

When the exacerbation of atrophic colitis occurs, the clinical picture is supplemented by such manifestations as stool disorders and painful false defecation urges, acute pain syndrome localized in different areas of the abdominal cavity, dyspepsia and flatulence.

If the inflammatory lesion is located on the right side of the intestine, then the patient complains of diarrhea, it is up to 20 times a day worried defecation, most of them are false.

Instead of the traditional feces from the anus, air accumulations and bloody mucus leave. Fecal stagnation provokes the development of a nausea-vomiting syndrome and general malaise, the ability to work against a background of strong weakness falls.

If the inflammatory processes cover all colonic structures, a diffuse form of atrophic colitis is formed, which is considered a precancerous stage. The diffuse form develops rapidly, so the most important thing is the timeliness of diagnosing inflammation of the intestine.

Diagnostics of

If there is a suspicion of atrophic colitis development, differentiation of the pathology with such dangerous conditions as intestinal oncology, ulcer or hemorrhoids, etc. is carried out.

To establish an accurate diagnosis, procedures are appointed:

  • Laboratory examination of fecal matter, at which the presence of leukocytes is checked, is evaluated by chemico-biological composition of mucus to detect the presence of an inflammatory process.
  • Colonoscopic diagnosis, in which the status of the gut is assessed using visualization equipment. In the process of research, you can take a biomaterial for histology or microscopic examination.
  • Radiography using a contrast agent allows us to assess the severity and extent of the inflammatory atrophic process.

At the admission the specialist necessarily collects anamnestic data, assesses the patient's complaints, examines the family history of the anamnesis, etc.

Treatment of atrophic colitis

The therapy of atrophic inflammation of the colonic mucosa is based on the severity and stage of development of the pathological process.

When selecting atrophic type colitis therapy, a specialist necessarily takes into account the origin of the inflammatory process. It is in accordance with the etiology that an appropriate therapeutic regimen is prepared.

  • If the provoking factor of colitis is uncontrolled or prolonged antibiotic therapy, then the drugs are canceled, appointing substitute medications.
  • If the etiology of the inflammatory process is associated with stress, then the help of a psychologist or psychotherapist is necessary.
  • In case of exacerbation of the pathology, the relief of the symptoms is first performed, and only then they begin to eliminate the causes of atrophy provoking the original causes.

The scheme of treatment of colitis atrophic form involves the use of a complex of drugs of analgesic and anti-inflammatory action.

Patients are cleansed with solutions and decoctions based on herbs, beets, etc. Anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics( Intriks or Furazolidon), spasmolytics( Baralgin, No-shpa, etc.) are also prescribed.

For the elimination of inflammatory processes is shown the intake of sulfonamides, while stagnation in the intestine shows laxatives( Bisacodyl, etc.).Excellent physiotherapy procedures help to cope with irritation and painful symptoms.

Treatment of atrophic intestinal inflammation is impossible without diet therapy. The patient should eat small portions, but often. The food should be in the garbled form, cooked by cooking or steaming.

If constipation is often disturbed, then prunes, sour-milk products or dried fruits are indicated. Useful for colitis, bran, pumpkin and celery. Under the ban, food is coarse, oily, heavy, various spices and gas-forming products.

Prognosis and prevention of

To fully restore the intestinal structures, it is necessary to maintain a dietary intake for a long time, timely intake of medicines, mandatory compliance with all medical prescriptions and recommendations.

Proper preventive maintenance is important to prevent pathology. Although not all forms of atrophic colitis can be prevented, with the help of some actions it is quite possible to reduce the probability or even the severity of the development of colitis.

This will help drink only purified drinking water, adherence to hygiene standards, timely therapy of pathologies that cause disorders of the blood supply of the intestine( diabetes, cholesterol vascular lesions, hypertension or cardiovascular pathologies, etc.).

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