The disease at the initial stage does not make itself felt, and early detection of the problem increases the chance of a good prognosis. Therefore, at the slightest suspicion of pathology, it is better to check with a specialist.
Concept and statistics
Education in the kidney, initiated by uncontrolled cell division simultaneously with their degeneration into cancer cells, causes kidney cancer.
Photo of kidney cancer in the
section There is a disease in adults mainly in old age, and in the children's period of up to five years( a kind - sarcoma).
Morphological types of kidney cancer:
- Renal cell tumors is the main type of cancer that affects the kidneys. According to statistics, they account for up to eighty percent of all cases of kidney cancer. If the tumor gives metastases, then this type of tumor appears in other organs.
These include carcinomas:
- granular cell,
- clear cell carcinoma or hypernephrenic kidney cancer,
- chorionic carcinoma;
- fibrous histiocytoma,
- clear cell,
Light-celled( hyper-nephritic) kidney cancer is the most common type of oncology.
According to statistics, up to eighty percent of cases of tumors of kidneys are attributed to this species. Pathology is formed from diseased cells of blood vessels and lipids.
It is recommended that the kidney be removed with pathology. At the same time, the fat tissue is removed, which was located near the kidney and the ureter.
In the case when it is impossible to leave the body without this kidney( for example, one kidney), remove the part of the organ.
The tumor has a weak blood supply. It originates from the epithelium, which lining the inner surface of the kidney. Due to the fact that the blood supply to the tumor occurs in a small amount, it develops slowly.
Early diagnosis of papillary kidney cancer is necessary, as with other types of oncology. Because the increase in the tumor carries a deadly risk.
The main method of treatment - surgery:
- Laparoscopic operation - through punctures in the abdomen area, the equipment is inserted into a diseased kidney under the supervision of optics. Possible procedures:
- removal of the kidney and ureter,
- tumor cutting, possibly together with part of the organ.
- An open surgery to remove the kidney along with the organs and tissues covered by the disease.
Its pathology develops in the collecting tubes of the cortical substance of the kidney. In the structure of the tumor cell there are vesicles, so the type of cancer was called chromophobic. Of the total number of oncological kidney diseases, this species occupies about five percent.
Causes and Risk Factors of
The causes that initiate the appearance of malignant processes in the kidney are not fully understood.
Specialists have identified a connection with such phenomena:
- Heredity can impart a penchant for kidney cancer.
- Smoking carries a threat to this pathology, because studies have shown that in cigarette smoke there are carcinogens acting on kidney tissues as a factor that causes oncology.
- People who are overweight are at risk.
- Patients with chronic diseases of serious illnesses can also get a kidney damage with a cancerous tumor.
- The pathological process can develop due to kidney trauma, for example, during a fall.
- Ionizing radiation can cause cancer in the body, including in the kidney area.
- Some medicines may initiate the problem.
- Contact with harmful chemicals is also considered a risk factor for cancer.
Symptoms of kidney cancer in men, women and children
Symptoms of the disease from the patient's sex do not change. The male half only adds a sign: in the spermatic cord there is an expansion of veins.
Child age does not have the main signs of the disease, which manifest themselves in adults.
Usually pathology is discovered by accident during bathing of children, groping for education, which should not be. This discovery can happen if the child gets on a physical examination.
Nonspecific features of
Symptoms that will help determine the cancer in the kidney:
- impotence, with time, the decline in strength manifests itself to a greater extent;
- high ESR,
- unnatural for a person who is not thin;
- loss of appetite.
Specific features of
The main first signs of the disease:
- back pain,
- if the tumor is large, it is felt when palpating;
- in the urine of the patient can appear blood,
- increased pressure,
- swelling of the legs.
Depending on how strongly the disease has developed and the dislocation of the tumor is also taken into account when subdividing the pathological formations into four stages:
- The cases where the tumor is small do not exceed 25 mm in the place of the largest size. It is located inside the kidney. With this development of the disease by the method of palpation, it is not determined. At this stage, the patient does not have discomfort associated with the presence of education in the kidney.
- By the second stage, the variant is considered when the tumor formation has grown beyond the capsule.
- Third degree - the pathological process has swept the lymph nodes, the tumor can grow into a hollow or renal vein.
- At the last stage of development, progression of the oncological process occurred far beyond the kidneys. Metastases are found in other organs. It can be liver, brain, digestive organs. With properly selected treatment, the fifth year can be spent by a third of patients. If the disease is detected at this stage, then the prognosis is very unfavorable. At this stage, doctors, as a rule, do not have the opportunity to radically help, conduct procedures that support the general condition. The patient can live up to one year.
The formation of the oncological nature spreads itself through metastases through the blood and lymph.
This process occurs when the disease is started. However, in a third of patients it occurs after removal of the diseased kidney.
Metastases spread to such organs:
- gastrointestinal tract,
- lymph nodes,
- adrenal gland,
- bone system.
If metastases have appeared in the lungs, then it provokes a cough and the presence of blood during expectoration. With small metastases, there may be treatment with drugs with sufficient probability for a good prognosis. If the metastasis is lonely, then it can be successfully removed by surgery.
The specialist conducts an examination of the patient, listens to complaints, looks for subfebrile temperature, and chooses ways to more accurately investigate the problem:
- Ultrasonography in kidney cancer can be performed with a special needle for the tumor examination( biopsy).
- Magnetic resonance imaging is an opportunity to get detailed information about problems in the kidney and beyond.
- Computed tomography is the same, only incident diagnosis of the bone system is added.
- The blood test is general and biochemical with check for oncologic markers.
- Excretory urography method - the patient is given radiography with contrast agents, which are injected into the vein shortly before the procedure.
- The method of renal angiography makes it possible to see the state of the vessels with a contrast medium.
- As far as the kidney performs its functions, it helps to determine the method of nephroscintigraphy.
- Urine test is analyzed for the presence of cancer cells.
How to treat kidney cancer
The main method of treating kidney cancer is surgical intervention.
Radiation and chemotherapy, as well as other advanced methods, are used as usual in the treatment of cancer.
- In the first stage of the disease, if the tumor is small, it is possible to conduct a closed surgery to remove it.
- In the second stage, resection or complete removal of the kidney is recommended depending on the features of the case.
- The third fourth stage of the disease requires immediate surgery to remove the kidney. If the body can not do without it, the doctor decides the question of a possible organ-preserving operation. A variant of a replacement for the implant may be considered. For the fourth stage, the operation is carried out, if possible and expedient.
Operative removal of
Radical excision of the organ is done by two methods:
- by open surgery,
- by laparoscopy.
The latter method is much less traumatic. When it is used, the patient is quickly restored after the procedure. The frequency of relapses after laparoscopy is much less frequent than in the first method.
Nutrition after operation
It is necessary to eat foods that are part of a sparing diet. For cancers in the kidney should be included in the diet:
- vegetable food,
- dairy products and their products,
- sprouted cereals.
In a small amount, you can diversify the diet with such products:
- low-fat fish and meat, in boiled form.
Food should be taken in divided batches, divided into approximately six receptions. Reduce the amount of salt in the diet and water( one liter).
Should be discarded:
- fried food,
- fatty food,
- from legumes,
- food, excitatory nervous system.
When the amount of education allows you to remove not the whole kidney, but only a part of it, then this procedure is called resection.
Video of laparoscopic resection of the kidney in cancer:
It can be performed in an open or closed manner, as in the case of complete kidney removal. The operation preserves the organ and allows the patient to avoid disability.
The method is used before and after the operation. The kidney has its own characteristics, which are manifested in the fact that chemotherapy drugs help much less than with oncology of other organs.
A method is used to disable cancer cells in combination therapy, part of which is surgery. But kidney cancer cells also do not react very strongly to this method.
Although it is still used as an independent procedure, when the patient is not operable. Some improvement in the state of health this method provides him.
The method involves taking medications that aggravate the work of the body's immune system. She, in turn, tries to direct forces to eliminate violations, including cancer cells.
These drugs include:
A new progressive method in the treatment of renal oncology is the use of targeted therapy drugs. In tumors there is a process of its growth, and for this they create vessels for themselves to have blood supply.
Such targeted drugs are known:
- and others.
Predictions after removal of
Survival of a patient with kidney cancer depends on the stage at which the treatment is started. If the pathology in its development has not exceeded the limits of the tumor, then the patient may have hope for healing.
Exact factors that causes kidney cancer are not established, but some are still known:
- It is necessary to abandon bad habits, including smoking.
- Do not expose the body to radiation.
- To be in an even emotional state, the kidneys get sick when a person is angry.
- Protect the kidney from bumps and injuries.
- Use protective equipment when handling chemicals.
- Prevent chronic diseases, in time to treat them.
- Monitor your weight so that it is normal.
What are the first signs of kidney cancer and its ways of treatment, in this video: