Prostate cancer: symptoms and signs in men, prevention, prognosis, blood test, photos, stages

The disease is very common among men older than middle age. Difficultly diagnosed. The first stages, when the complete cure is possible, as a rule, are hidden.

Men who have relatives with such a pathology, and those who are attentive to their health, it is recommended to inspect a specialist once a year. This is especially true of older men.

Concept and Statistics

Prostate is an iron that is implicated in the ability to hold urine.

She secretes her secret into seminal fluid and takes part in ejaculation. The gland is part of the male's reproductive system.

The prostate is located on the ureter, in its upper part. The gland covers the ureter with a ring.

Men under sixty in the number of patients with oncology of the prostate occupy about seven percent. And patients older than this age represent three-fourths of the total number of cases.

According to statistics after fifty years, every seventh man has oncology of the prostate.


Classification of pathology by histological sign:

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  • Differentiated tumors:
    • alveolar cancer,
    • tubular cancer,
    • adenocarcinoma,
    • squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Malodifferentsirovannye tumors:
    • solid cancer,
    • scirrhous cancer,
    • anaplastic adenocarcinoma.
  • Undifferentiated tumors:
    • polymorphic cancer.

The main form of cancer, which accounts for ninety-five percent of prostate cancer, are acinar adenocarcinomas.

Reasons for

Why the disease occurs is not exactly known. It is noted that the presence of some factors coincides with the detection of prostate oncology in a patient.

  1. Deviations in the hormonal background of men. Increasing the presence of testosterone increases the likelihood of a pathology.
  2. The problem appears in the elderly. Therefore, this factor is attributed to the risk zone.
  3. Unfavorable ecology promotes the origin of cancer diseases, including prostate.
  4. Improper nutrition increases the possibility of disease. Excessive consumption of animal fats worsens the absorption of vitamin A. This vitamin is the number of antioxidants that protect the body from pathology.
  5. Viral infections can trigger a problem.
  6. There are circumstances at work that contribute to the disease of prostate cancer. This is when welding, in the rubber industry, if you have to perform actions with cadmium.
  7. It is noticed that in families where there are cases of prostate cancer, the likelihood of the disease with such a diagnosis in other members of the male is quite possible. This indicates the heredity of pathology.

What symptoms can be observed?

The disease does not have any particular symptoms that are specific only to this problem.

The signs that appear in prostate cancer in men are similar to the symptoms of other diseases, including the manifestation of prostate adenoma.

  1. If the disease in the initial period( 1 degree of manifestation), the patient does not experience discomfort and can learn about the problem during an accidental or preventive examination.
  2. If prostate cancer has developed to grade 2, the patient still does not feel any alarm in his state of health.
  3. In 3 stages of development, prostate cancer manifests itself as symptoms:
    • urination problems:
      • frequent desires,
      • incomplete emptying,
      • painful sensations during urination,
      • in urine there are bloody inclusions,
      • remains empty in the urinary bladder more and more volume,
      • appears a problem with retention of urination;
    • is broken erectile function.
  4. When the oncological process has developed to the last stage to symptoms characteristic of the third degree, unpleasant phenomena initiated by metastases are added:
    • bone pain,
    • decline of strength,
    • anemia,
    • significant weight loss for no apparent reason,
    • edema of the lower extremities,
    • withmetastases in the lungs appears cough,
    • if the liver is affected, the skin acquires a yellowish hue,
    • in the case of metastases in the kidney area - pain in the lower back.

Classification of degrees

Scientists in their search for a better way to develop a classification of the pathology of the gland, which would be informative for specialists, made up several systems.

On the Gleason scale

Gleason - a scientist from America created the principle of classification according to the degree of malignancy of education. In accordance with this theory, tumors are evaluated by the degree of differentiation of the cells of the formations. This indication is expressed in points and is called the Gleason score.

It is accepted that:

  • if the sum of Gleason's indices is in the range of 8 ÷ 10, then the degree of aggression of pathology is high,
  • is the same -7, then it is a matter of average aggressiveness,
  • is the same - within 2 ÷ 6, this formationhas a low aggressiveness, develops slowly.

On the system of TNM

When writing a diagnostic report, use the TNM system. This estimate includes aggregate indices in three directions:

  • T - provides information on the tumor size in this evaluation system,
  • H - complements the education profile by the extent to which the pathological process of the lymph nodes is covered;
  • M - informs on whether there are metastases, the zones of their spread.

The T indicator has fifteen grades:

  • from Tx, which means that the formation is so small that it is not detected or not at all;
  • to T4 - the pathology has spread to neighboring organs.

Indicator H for the description of lymph node involvement is divided into four points:

  • where the first Hx informs that the data do not confirm the presence of lymph node involvement;
  • maximum value of H3 indicates that the lymph nodes are affected by the oncological process.

Indicator M has six points for expressing the degree of metastasis:

  • the first Mx - data on distant metastases is absent,
  • last M1c - metastases have spread to other organs.

Stages of

  1. For the course of the disease, the first stage is characterized by a small formation, which does not manifest itself in any way. It is determined if the patient has undergone removal of the adenoma, and with its histological examination it was found out that the tumor is of a cancerous nature.
  2. In the second stage, the formation is so large that when the rectal examination the node can be detected. The malignancy of cells is determined by sampling the material for biopsy research. The patient does not feel any discomfort at this stage, metastases happen in very rare cases.
  3. The third stage of prostate cancer is characterized by the fact that the tumor sprouts into adjacent tissues, it can be found in the base of the bladder, seminal vesicles. At this stage, frequent cases of the spread of metastases to the lymph nodes in the pelvic region.
  4. The last stage in the development of prostate oncology is determined by the fact that the formation has developed in large dimensions, long metastasis takes place. They can spread to the bone system and other organs.


The process of spreading pathology sometimes occurs even with small amounts of education. The tumor first grows to the nearest organs:

  • upper ureter and bladder,
  • near lymph nodes.

Prostate cancer is dangerous for early metastases, which complicates the treatment process and significantly worsens the prognosis.

Spread of the pathology occurs on the organs:

  • bone,
  • lymph nodes are not only near and far,
  • adrenal glands,
  • lungs,
  • liver.

When the process of metastasis proliferation has begun, the patient is completely cured of becoming impossible.


  • The specialist analyzes the patient's complaints. If they give a picture similar to prostate cancer, the doctor chooses methods of examination that will clarify the nature of the disease.
  • The area of ​​the prostate is examined by a method that is always used during the diagnosis of a similar problem - a digital rectal examination. The prostate has such an internal arrangement that through the rectum it is possible to probe it and determine the possible presence of seals.
  • Ultrasonic tomography of the prostate is one of the methods of investigation.

Photo of prostate cancer on ultrasound diagnosis

  • When determining the formation of its malignancy is identified by taking samples from the node by biopsy for histological analysis. The procedure is performed using a special needle through the rectum or perineum.
  • The blood test for antigen( PSA) can confirm the presence of a problem and indicate possible metastases.
  • For the sake of clarity, an X-ray examination is acceptable.
  • One of the methods used to obtain confirmatory information is a radioisotope study.

How to treat prostate cancer?

Depending on the maturity of the problem, the specialist chooses ways to help the patient.

In the early stages of

  • If it was possible to detect a problem at a time when metastases have not yet appeared, then surgical removal of the tumor promotes healing.
  • Radiation therapy or a more modern alternative method may be used - brachytherapy.
  • Also possible application of treatment methods:
    • ultrasound ablation,
    • monotherapy with antiandrogens,
    • cryoablation.

On later

For treatment methods are applied:

  • drug therapy aimed at reducing testosterone, drug castration;
  • surgery - at this stage, castration is performed,
  • radiotherapy is performed remotely.


The diet, based on the recommendations of scientists who have investigated the effects of products and various substances on the development of prostate cancer, can have a positive effect on the course of the disease.

Doctors' advice:

  • To moderate consumption of animal fats.
  • Eat more vegetable fiber.
  • Reduce the calcium content in the diet.
  • Ensure that food is not high in calories.

At the initial stage, when metastases did not appear, adherence to the advice can influence as a retarding factor for their appearance.


When determining a patient's oncology of the prostate, he should adhere to a cautious behavior:

  • Eliminate prolonged thermal procedures, such as washing in a bath.
  • Do not drink alcohol.
  • The medications used by the patient prior to this period should be agreed with a specialist.
  • Sports loads should also be discussed with your doctor.
  • Should be abandoned acupuncture, manual therapy.
  • Do not consume oxygen cocktails.
  • Eliminate procedures that help cells to saturate with oxygen.

Forecast of

In the first stages before the onset of metastases, the patient can be completely cured.

If the first stage is missed, then manipulations are made to maintain the human condition, but the problem can not be completely solved. If the metastases affected the organs, then the prognosis is unfavorable.

Prophylaxis of prostate cancer in men

  • Because prostate cancer is one of the most threatening for the male part of the population, especially those who are aged, the most important event will be the examination of a specialist at least once a year.
  • Compliance with the rules of a healthy lifestyle strengthens the resistance of the body to problems.
  • Useful:
    • stay in place with clean ecology,
    • a positive attitude towards the world.

Video, how quickly prostate cancer can develop:

What every man should know about prostate cancer, the following video will tell:
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