What is the arachnoid cyst of the brain, the symptoms and methods of treatment?

1 General idea of ​​the disease

The arachnoid cyst is a neoplasm between the brain envelopes, which is benign. This formation is represented as a fluid-filled bladder. Arachnoid cysts were first introduced as far back as 1831, but until now have not been fully studied.

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In its form, the arachnoid cyst can reach small sizes and remain in this state for a very long time without causing any harm to human health. People sometimes do not even know that they suffer from such a disease, since the cyst in their brain does not interfere with their full-fledged vital activity.

A doctor may accidentally detect a tumor of this type during an MRI.

If the cyst begins to increase in size in time, then nearby brain tissues begin to experience a certain pressure, which results in unpleasant symptoms.

2 Types of pathology

To date, there are 2 varieties of arachnoid cyst:

  • primary, or, as it is also called, a true arachnoid cyst;
  • secondary, or acquired.

Primary arachnoid cyst of the brain begins to develop in the womb of the mother and the cause may be an abnormal development of the brain membranes as a result of the mother taking various medications, penetration of toxins into the mother's body, exposure to radiation or a number of other negative factors from the environment.

The secondary form of the cyst of the brain develops against the background of a man's disease. Thus, the causes of this tumor are as follows:

  • various inflammatory diseases of the brain, such as meningitis or arachnoiditis;
  • suffered from trauma to the skull or brain;
  • circulatory failures in the brain;
  • surgical intervention in the brain;
  • Marfan syndrome, which is a hereditary disease.

In addition to arachnoid, there is also a retrocerebellar cyst, which, like the first variety, is a benign formation. All of them can be asymptomatic, but if the archaic cyst in the head does not always require thorough treatment, then the retrocerebellar cyst without proper timely treatment can lead to brain damage.

3 Symptoms of

As already mentioned earlier, the arachnoid cyst of the brain can not claim for a long time its existence, and it can be detected only by medical examination performed in connection with complaints about a completely different disease. But it often happens that this kind of cyst nevertheless manifests itself as very unpleasant for a person with symptoms, such as:

  • very strong attacks of nausea;
  • frequent vomiting;
  • persistent dizziness.

If the case is more serious, the person is often disturbed by mental disorders, even temporary hallucinations are possible.

If the arachnoid cyst was formed in the brainstem area, it subsequently leads to the formation of intervertebral hernias, and this, in turn, is fraught with disruption of many other important organs in the human body.

It should nevertheless highlight the main and frequently occurring symptoms in the formation of an arachnoid cyst:

  • causeless and sudden headache;
  • dizziness;
  • possible loss of consciousness;
  • temporary partial numbness of certain parts of the body;
  • mental health disorders;
  • violation of orientation in space;
  • partial impairment of hearing or vision;
  • feeling of pain while moving head.

Often, a person has a noise in the ears, which is not associated with diseases of the hearing.

Often an arachnoid cyst in the head with its symptoms and signs resembles a concussion of the brain.

A timely treatment for a patient can result in very tragic results, even the death of the patient.

4 Diagnostic measures

Since the arachnoid cyst may not show itself for a long time and the disease does not have any distinctive symptoms, it is possible to establish the diagnosis only with the help of special laboratory and instrumental studies.

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One of the main and accurate methods of detecting the cyst of the brain is magnetic resonance imaging. On the pictures received by the specialist, one can clearly see the main location of the cyst formation in the head. Such a modern way of revealing pathologies allows us to calculate the size of the lesion.

However, when carrying out diagnostic procedures, the main task of a doctor is to establish the true cause of the appearance of education in the brain. If this can be done, successful treatment with a positive result is guaranteed.

A survey using state-of-the-art examination techniques reveals the presence of:

  • autoimmune diseases;
  • infectious diseases;
  • worsening on the part of the cerebral circulation.

The very first stage of the survey involves the study of the vessels of the neck and head. Here, a modernized method is used, such as Doppler. If the doctor determines that the blood supply has been disturbed, foci of dead tissue in the brain are immediately identified. These sites are the main place of cyst formation. In parallel, a comprehensive examination of the cardiovascular system.

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The second stage of the examination of a patient with suspected presence of arachnoid cysts involves giving patients blood for an in-depth complete analysis, which allows studying the clotting parameters and also revealing the level of cholesterol. Because the presence of blood clots and cholesterol plaques is an excellent basis for the development of the disease.

Very often, the cause of the development of the arachnoid cyst is the frequent pressure drop. To this end, the doctor establishes almost a daily observation of the patient with an hourly measurement of his blood pressure.

After the complete diagnosis of the patient is completed, the doctors evaluate all the tests, indicate all possible causes of the arachnoid cyst, and finally begin to address it.

5 Therapeutic actions of

The treatment of the arachnoid cyst in young children is highly questioned, since in the majority of cases the cysts formed in the child's brain disappear by the 9-11th month of life. Therefore, medicine is still unable to give an accurate and complete answer, but is it worthwhile to start treating primary formations at all.

Arachnoid cyst should be treated when it causes the development of secondary diseases or begins to show itself unpleasant and annoying symptoms. If the case is not severe, it may be necessary only to eliminate the very cause of the cyst. In more severe situations, it is necessary to carry out a full course of treatment, and, perhaps, even need to perform an operation.

Surgical intervention is indicated in cases when there is a rapid growth of the arachnoid cyst, or when its rupture occurs.

If you do not make timely relevant actions, then the consequence may be the manifestation of such neurological problems as epilepsy.

Types of surgical intervention:

  • bypass;
  • endoscopic operation;
  • microsurgery.

One of the most commonly used and proven methods of surgical intervention is bypass. It is a method in which the cerebrospinal fluid is excreted by a special valve.

The selected method of surgery depends on the location of the cyst. If the cyst hides near or, in other words, is in a very "convenient" place, then a simple method of its removal, such as endoscopy, is used.

6 Preventive measures

It should be recalled that the arachnoid cyst is formed during intrauterine development. Hence it follows that all pregnant women need to take care of the health of the unborn baby from the very beginning. Pregnancy should be without complications. The main task is to prevent fetal hypoxia, but it is practically impossible to influence this process.

Regarding the secondary form of the arachnoid cyst, its development can be prevented by following all the following rules and recommendations:

  • always monitor the state of its pressure;
  • observe the correct level of cholesterol in the blood;
  • in the course of the manifestation of various symptoms of infectious diseases to conduct their timely treatment;
  • carefully monitor their health after the previous operations on the brain, as well as after head and brain injuries.

Thus, the arachnoid cyst is a disease that belongs to the category of very serious and special diseases. However, with its timely detection and effective treatment of the patient, only a positive prognosis is expected. If you ignore this state of the body, it is possible rapid progression of the disease and the onset of serious complications.

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