Toxocarosis is a dangerous zoonotic helminthiasis that has polymorphic clinical manifestations that are caused by migration of larvae of a parasite uncharacteristic of man, the main host of which are representatives of the canine or feline family, in vital organs and tissues. They are found in the lungs, liver, pancreas, eyes, under the skin and even in the brain. The invasion by the larvae of these worms has a long recurring course, and getting rid of it is quite difficult.
How does the infection of people with this form of toxocariasis occur? If the rules of personal hygiene are not observed, the invasive eggs of the helminth enter the oral cavity, and then the small intestine, where larvae out of them come out, which dig the mucous membrane and carry blood through the body with the blood flow. First of all, they settle in the right side of the heart, the lungs and the liver, and then spread to the rest of the organs. Their vitality lasts several months, and sometimes even years.
How does the toxocarosis of the liver occur?
After the larvae of parasites through the intestinal mucosa and portal vein system penetrate into the liver tissue and are encapsulated, it forms the nodes( granules).This entails not only an increase in the liver, but also a violation of its functioning. There is a hepatic syndrome - the structure of the body becomes denser, and palpation causes the patient painful sensation. Toxocarosis of the liver can have in 2 stages:
- Acute, the symptomatology of which is manifested in the patient no later than in 5 days. As a result of the development of this form, mass death of liver cells occurs, caused by the vital activity of migrating parasite larvae. Significant damage to tissues leads to disruption of the functioning of this organ. This type of pathology is accompanied by such dyspeptic manifestations as pain in the peripodal region, bloating, nausea, decreased appetite;
- Chronic liver damage is caused by encapsulated, but from time to time beginners migrate in it to larvae. It can last more than six months. One of the complications with liver toxocarosis is cirrhosis, as a result of which the formation of granules that change the structure of the body. Also, often a chronic lesion is accompanied by a picture of hepatitis.
Toxocarosis of the lungs
From the liver, the larvae of the parasites migrate to the lungs through the bloodstream. This type of pathology is characterized by the emergence of dry and prolonged cough, which is unproductive, i.e.without excretion of phlegm, character. This is the so-called asthmatic component, or bronchospasm of the lungs. One of the most serious consequences of the pulmonary form of toxocariasis is the development of asthma. Most often, after getting rid of the invasion by the larvae of these helminths, it does not disappear, but passes into a chronic stage.
Lung infestation of these parasites occurs in humans very often, in more than half of cases of invasion. First of all, it is manifested by the onset of inflammatory processes in the upper respiratory tract. The patient is diagnosed with tracheitis, laryngitis or pharyngitis. After the larvae of Toxocar settle in the lungs, the following symptoms appear in the person:
- Stamina in the chest;
- Cyanosis of the skin;
- Coughing at night;
- Dyspnea of an expiratory nature.
When listening to the chest, it reveals a variety of rales, due to accumulation in the lung fluid. X-ray photographs show infiltrates with a fuzzy structure.
Toxocarosis of the brain
A small part of the larvae can pass through the liver system through the liver system and penetrate into the central nervous system or the organ of vision. When parasites get into the brain, the patient is diagnosed with a neurological form of the disease, which is difficult to get rid of. It proceeds accompanied by such signs as:
- Difficulties in perception of elementary things;
- The onset of hyperactivity;
- Attention violation.
Also, the neurological variety of toxocarias in the absence of adequate treatment can cause the patient to have convulsions, severe and prolonged headaches, paralysis, paresis, meningoencephalitis, arachnoiditis.
The treatment of toxocariasis of the brain is carried out in a complex, under the supervision of an infectious disease specialist, neurosurgeon or psychiatrist. First of all, patients are prescribed antinematous and symptomatic drugs, as well as with other types of toxocariasis. In passing, neurologic therapy is administered, which is appointed by a psychiatrist or a neurosurgeon, depending on the intensity of the development of the complication that arose due to a disruption in the functioning of the brain. Only timely detection and adequate treatment of this type of invasion can lead to complete recovery of the patient.