Helminthiases are a variety of diseases that are caused by worms( helminths) of various species. The development of helminthiases passes through two phases - acute and chronic, the time of their development depends on the type of worms.
In the acute phase of the disease, parasites are introduced into the body and begin to multiply, usually this is manifested by nonspecific body reactions that depend on the type of worms, but there are common signs. It is a fever, a rash like an allergic urticaria, swelling of the face, constipation or diarrhea, a decrease in appetite, fatigue, pallor, drowsiness.
When a process changes into a chronic form, the disease manifests itself as a violation of the work of various organs and systems, these manifestations depend on where the worms are, their amounts and toxins that they excrete. Most often affects the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, muscles, brain, immune system.
Worm Detection Methods Using Ultrasound
There are many methods for detecting parasites in the body. To detect worms and their eggs, the analysis of feces for eggs of helminths is most often performed. Less commonly, urine, bile, and blood are examined. However, this does not always help to identify parasites that are located outside the intestine. In some situations, special survey methods are used that can detect the location and type of worms. These are ELISA( enzyme immunoassay), RA( agglutination reaction), radiography, CT.Certain types of worms can be seen on ultrasound, and also by indirect signs suggest their presence and localization in the human body.
The advantage of ultrasound is its harmlessness to humans. The study is repeated many times without the threat of complications.
Most often, on ultrasound you can see the indirect symptoms of the presence of worms in the body. Therefore, if a person already has helminthiasis diagnosed, the study will help to locate the site of parasite localization, as well as organ damage due to the presence of parasites in it. If ultrasound imaging detects organ damage, but there is no clear reason for these changes, this may lead the doctor to think about helminthiasis and conduct appropriate examinations to confirm the diagnosis and treatment.
pancreas ultrasound in patients with helminthiasis will show an increase in size and compaction of a non-uniform organ.
ultrasound of the liver with helminthiasis shows an increase in size, which indicates the inflammation of the liver( hepatitis) which is caused by worms.
With opisthorchiasis on ultrasound, it is possible to see such indirect signs of worms as violation of patency of the bile ducts, enlargement of the hepatic ducts and common bile duct, impaired mobility and contractility of the gallbladder.
With echinococcosis on ultrasound, you can see cysts - round formations with clear contours. It can be either one cyst or several. If the course of this helminthiasis is chronic, the study will show calcified( dense) cysts. If the cyst is suppurated, its contours will not look clear. There are also possible repeated manifestations of echinococcosis after surgery, then ultrasound determines worms in the liver. In so-called multi-chamber echinococcosis, ultrasound of the liver shows single or multiple round formations of a heterogeneous structure, irregular shape with indistinct edges, dense, as well as an enlarged liver. In the middle of such formations a cavity with "torn" edges and dense contents is found. With alveococcosis on ultrasound of the liver, small nodes up to 1-2 cm can be seen.
It should be remembered that the conclusion of the examination should be considered only in conjunction with the rest of the specific analyzes. Independently this method can not confirm the diagnosis of helminthiosis.