The doctrine of inflammatory processes in the cavity of the small intestine, that is, of enteritis, is one of the most important sections of internal medicine. It can cause significant digestive disorders and severely disrupts the general condition of the body. What etiology and clinic does the disease have? And how to cure it?
The etiology of acute enteritis in humans primarily depends on the effects of a number of direct and predisposing factors. The most frequent are malnutrition, toxic poisoning, toxic-infectious diseases, allergic reactions. The disease most affected are those who have secretory gastric and pancreatic insufficiency, as well as metabolic disorders.
Chronic enteritis is a polyethological disease, where the primary cause of its development is a previously transmitted acute intestinal infection. Just like the acute type of illness, the causes of chronic illness are reduced to such as malnutrition, uncontrolled use of antibiotics, toxic effects. Factors that contribute to the development of chronic form of enteritis in humans are a systematic nutritional disorder and the use of surrogates. In some cases, it is noted that the development of the chronic form of the disease depends on a prolonged food allergy.
As a result of this etiology, inflammatory processes in the mucosa of the small intestine cavity begin.
Acute enteritis in humans primarily begins with a clinic such as diarrhea, the presence of nausea and vomiting, the appearance of painful sensations in the abdominal region. It is possible to raise the temperature of the body, headaches. The act of defecation occurs from 10 to 20 times, and even more, while it is watery and plentiful. There is a general intoxication of the body, as well as dryness of skin and mucous membranes, white coating on the surface of the tongue. The patient suffers from flatulence and grumbling in the intestines.
If diarrhea continues for a long time, dehydration begins to develop, in some, more severe cases, convulsions, coma and shock may occur.
Chronic-type enteritis has an enteral and extra-intestinal clinic. This includes the presence of diarrhea, flatulence, painful sensations with cramping characteristics, rumbling. Especially strongly manifested clinic of enteritis in case of its exacerbation.
How to treat enteritis?
How to cure acute enteritis in humans? To begin with it is necessary to say that the treatment is carried out in a hospital. Enteritis acute acute form will be treated in the department of gastroenterology, with infectious form is carried out hospitalization in an infectious box.
The patient must comply with bed rest, diet, take plenty of drink, and also provide therapy to eliminate symptoms and strengthen immunity.
If, together with enteritis, a severe dysbacteriosis develops in a person, then a medicamental correction of the intestinal microflora is carried out with the help of medications and enema, and diarrhea is stopped with the help of astringents. If the protein metabolism is violated, then polypeptide solutions are introduced.
Treatment of acute enteritis in humans, mainly, will take about a week, and hospital discharge is made only after all the symptoms of enteritis have subsided.
How to cure enteritis in chronic form? With an exacerbation of the chronic form, an appropriate solution is treatment in a hospital. The patient also needs to comply with bed rest and diet, and also put a curative enema.
In case of exacerbation of small intestine inflammation, it is worth using foods with a high protein content, but fat and carbohydrates should be excluded. It will also be necessary to refrain from consuming coarse food, spicy, sour and other products that can harm the mucosa of the digestive tract. Products with sufficient fiber content, in particular milk, are also excluded.
During the remission of enteritis, a balanced diet is observed, an enema is held, where all the required substances, vitamins and minerals are contained in sufficient quantity.
Medication treatment of enteritis
Along with compliance with the diet, medical treatment is required. It will mainly be aimed at eliminating the symptoms of the disease.
To cure diarrhea in enteritis, adsorbents are used, and antisecretory agents also have good efficacy. Given the fact that diarrhea is evidence of accelerated intestinal activity, Loperamide is a very effective tool in fighting diarrhea. Also, tranquilizers can be taken.
To treat flatulence and swelling with inflammation of the small intestine, carminative drugs, for example, Espumizan, will help.
Wide application in the treatment of pancreatic disorders found substitution therapeutic measures in the form of pancreatic enzyme, since its functionality is often disturbed by enteritis.
The big attention at an enteritis is given treatment of a dysbacteriosis. This factor is the reason for the appointment of probiotics, that is, drugs containing beneficial bacteria that, when ingested into the intestinal cavity, begin to colonize it, which gradually leads to the death of pests of the microflora.
Than to treat processes of infringement of an absorption and digestion of nutrition? If a severe form of enteritis is observed, when the violation of digestion and absorption is clearly expressed, water-electrolyte equilibrium disorders, infusion substitution therapeutic measures, for example, calcium gluconate, a complex of B vitamins or multivitamins, are used for treatment. Also, the use of steroid hormones, reducing the severity of inflammation in the small intestine, and improving its suction function is permitted.
In addition, if there is a pronounced depletion, then anabolic steroids are used, which are drugs used as doping by unscrupulous athletes. Anabolic helps in the treatment of muscle building, and can improve the metabolic process, so that the intestinal mucosa is restored more quickly.
Forecast of treatment of enteritis
If enteritis in humans occurs in mild and moderate form with adequate therapy, then full recovery will occur after a few days. In severe form, enteritis can lead to the development of complications that require emergency care.
If you do not perform adequate treatment in chronic form, then a lethal outcome is possible. In other cases, inflammation of the small intestine will be accompanied by relatively good work capacity, however, it is worth avoiding physical stress and stress.