1 Causes of the disease
There are different reasons for the poor production of thyroid hormones. This can occur due to problems in the thyroid itself. Namely, it is a primary hypothyroidism, which is associated with inflammatory processes, defects in the development of tissues or lack of iodine in the human body. Another reason may be associated with the presence of pathological processes and disorders in the hypothalamic-pituitary system, which is responsible for the functioning of the thyroid gland. This process is called secondary hypothyroidism.
Primary hypothyroidism develops in several ways:
- Alteration - occurs due to damage to the tissues of the thyroid gland. These injuries can be different, including those caused by the immune system and various injuries.
- Iodine deficiency - is a deficiency of iodine in the human body, which provokes poor functioning of the thyroid gland. There are congenital and acquired hypothyroidism.
Congenital occurs when the thyroid gland is missing altogether, or underdeveloped, which produces an insufficient amount of thyroid hormones. It happens that enzymes that participate in the necessary synthesis of hormones, have hereditary defects. Such enzymes disrupt the absorption of iodine in the thyroid gland.
Acquired hypothyroidism has many ways of origin. Most often occurs after removal of the gland, as well as in the event of radiation or after taking some drugs, including radioactive iodine.
Secondary hypothyroidism occurs as a result of the development of diseases of the pituitary or hypothalamus. When all the controlling structures of the iron are damaged, the functional activity decreases, after which the disease is aggravated. Whatever the cause of this disease, it requires qualified care of doctors who will prescribe treatment only after diagnosis.
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2 Symptoms of the pathology
Hormones that produce the thyroid gland affect all internal organs and tissues, therefore the signs of hypothyroidism are very difficult to identify. They have a specific character and make it difficult to diagnose the disease. Symptoms of this disease are very different and can easily be confused with another disease.
Most often, people with hypothyroidism complain of the following symptoms:
- general weakness;
- increased fatigue;
- brittle hair and nails;
- skin dryness;
- depression and apathy.
In this case, all the body systems react to this disease in their own way:
- From the side of the nervous system, patients note: poor memory, drowsiness, poor concentration of attention.
- From the cardiovascular system: increased blood pressure, shortness of breath, slow heartbeat.
- From the gastrointestinal tract: constipation, increased hepatic enzymes.
- On the part of the reproductive system, erectile dysfunction is observed in men, and in women, hypothyroidism can cause a menstrual cycle and lead to the termination of pregnancy. In both sexes there is a decrease in libido, there is a possibility of infertility.
Of course, such symptoms appear in the absence of proper treatment. After all, only it allows replenishing the missing level of hormones T3, T4.It should be taken into account that the latent stages of hypothyroidism are very difficult to notice because of very weak manifestations of symptoms. Therefore, you should listen to the body as often as possible, so as not to miss the initial stages of the disease.
3 Classification of hypothyroidism forms
Hypothyroidism, depending on the amount of thyroid hormone produced by the thyroid gland, is of moderate to severe severity. If there are no such hormones at all, then this can lead to a very serious course of the disease. Such hypothyroidism is called myxedema. When the production of hormones is partially preserved, the functioning of the body systems is disrupted, but it is completely curable.
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Depending on the degree of severity, hypothyroidism happens:
- Latent - does not have absolute indications for treatment, this form of the disease is treated only during pregnancy or during the planning period of the child.
- Manifest - differs high level of TSH, with insufficient T4.Treatment of such a degree of hypothyroidism occurs solely on the prescription of the doctor;
- Compensated gipoterioz means good indicators due to treatment;
- Decompensated - occurs most often after removal of the organ, resulting in the treatment does not give the desired effect;
- Complicated - occurs in the most neglected cases and leads to various complications.
This disease is dangerous because it weakly manifests itself in the early stages of the disease, and this leads to various complications. Therefore, after diagnosing this disease, it is necessary to begin treatment immediately.
When patients with hypothyroidism do not use hormone therapy, horrible consequences can occur. Children are observed:
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- lagging mental and physical development;
- problems with cardiovascular system and heart;
- decreased immunity, which is accompanied by chronic colds;
- is a permanent weakness.
In adults, rejection of hormone therapy can lead to the following consequences:
- decreased mental capacity and intelligence;
- has problems with heart and pressure;
- menstruation cycle occurs;
- there is infertility and impotence;
- exacerbated chronic diseases.
In order not to start this disease, you need to pay close attention to your health, it helps to avoid the appearance of severe symptoms, you need to turn for medical help. Only a doctor can correctly diagnose the form of hypothyroidism and prescribe the right treatment.
4 Diagnostic methods
Thyroid hypothyroidism is a serious enough disease, which is very difficult to identify at early stages. But it definitely requires qualified medical care. Therefore, at the first suspicions of this disease, you should seek help from a doctor. This disease can diagnose an endocrinologist who, on the basis of certain patient complaints and examination of the thyroid gland, can determine the presence of this disease.
First of all, the doctor will write a referral for the examination, which will result in a diagnosis. The examination consists in modern laboratory tests that will determine the level of T3, T4 and TSH.The diagnosis is confirmed if the T3 level is below normal, or THT is below or above normal. For complete diagnosis, it is also necessary to determine the content of autoantibodies by making a biochemical analysis of the blood and ultrasound of the thyroid gland.
When all necessary data on the studies are ready, the attending physician prescribes the necessary treatment, depending on the stage and course of the disease. It is important to know that only specialists can prescribe drugs of this kind, having previously assessed all the risks. Therefore, in cases with this disease it is very dangerous to engage in self-medication.
5 Treatment methods
Treatment of this disease, as a rule, consists in taking medications prescribed by a doctor, which help to raise the level of hormones to the required level.
A good supplement to the prescribed treatment is a diet. It will help the body to get the necessary vitamins, minerals and proteins in sufficient quantities. The diet involves limiting carbohydrates, animal fats, salt and liquid, but it requires increasing the intake of foods with a high fiber content, which is found in vegetables and cereals.
There are other methods of treating hypothyroidism, which also helps to cope with the disease. In some cases, treatment for hypothyroidism should be performed with the help of a surgical procedure. But such an operation is not shown to everyone and has its own peculiarities, therefore, before taking such a decision, doctors discuss all possible alternative methods of treatment and the possible scope of this operation. The main indication for such treatment is a single node or even the growth of a separate hillock. After the operation, hypothyroidism may develop, after which the patient will have to take substitute medications for the rest of his life.
Another method of treatment is called radioiodotherapy, which means treatment with radioactive iodine, which is taken only once. The principle of the action of this iodine is that it penetrates the cells of the thyroid gland, and then accumulates in them and destroys. With this treatment, the size of the gland is significantly reduced. Radioiodine therapy is prescribed together with medication for a good result. This method does not guarantee full recovery, but only makes the disease less expressive, and, after a while, the course of treatment can be repeated.
Treating hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland should always be, because this disease can lead to serious complications. Of course, the success of such treatment depends on the causes of this disease, but nevertheless, the correct and timely treatment of hypothyroidism often leads to an improvement in well-being and even complete recovery.