Biochemical blood analysis refers to diagnostic auxiliary techniques that reflect the state of functional systems of the body, including skin. Although the system of symbols and figures obtained by hand is not completely understood by patients, it is desirable to have an idea of this diagnostic method. And today we will tell you about what shows and how much the blood test is done( prepared), and what are the rates of the norm in children and adults.
The concept of biochemical blood analysis
Biochemical analysis of blood can detect dermatological diseases by quantitative and qualitative chemical analysis of blood. Indicators of the results of a biochemical blood test are proteins, enzymes, hormones and ions of dissolved mineral substances contained in the blood plasma.
By results of biochemistry of blood it is possible to judge the degree of development of pathology, specification of the diagnosis. Analysis also allows you to plan the treatment plan correctly or correct it in time.
About what a biochemical blood test is, this video will tell:
To whom it is assigned
Biochemistry of blood is indicated for delivery to all patients with dermatological diseases,additional analysis not only clarifies the diagnosis of skin pathology, but also helps to clarify the cause of the disease and reflects the state of vitamin provision of the body.
In the absence of symptoms of the disease with developing pathology, the analysis reveals metabolic abnormalities in the early stages, which ensures the appointment of a competent treatment regimen and prevents a serious threat to the patient's health. In the presence of pathology, laboratory analysis facilitates continuous monitoring of the course of the disease and the occurrence of a relapse of pathology.
Feasibility and frequency of
Blood donation for biochemical analysis is recommended under the following conditions:
- complex diagnostic examination of each person;
- suspected specific pathology in order to correct the diagnosis;
- a patient's personal desire to be examined outside the routine analysis.
If the symptoms of diseases are absent and the patient feels healthy, it is enough to pass a laboratory examination once a year for preventive purposes. Such a periodicity allows timely detection of the violations that have begun and prevents their further progress.
Analysis takes a little time, relatively cheap, does not represent a painful process and is simple in technique. The results of the analysis reduce the list of suspected diseases in the patient, help to identify the causes of pathology, on the basis of which it is possible to make the right course of treatment.
The laboratory procedure can be administered regardless of when the last time it was performed in the patient. When monitoring the dynamics of treatment, a biochemical blood test is one of the main parameters of the treatment program implementation and its possible correction.
Types of procedure
In biochemical analysis, there are more than one thousand indicators. A few of the indicators are used to identify a particular disease or a violation of one of the functional systems.
The standard forms use the most important indicators that reflect the level of metabolism: glucose, bilirubin, creatinine, AST, α-amylase, ALT, thymol test, total protein. The following classes of markers are distinguished for the biochemical markers of individual metabolic processes:
- Exchange of proteins and peptides.
- Lipid exchange.
- Metabolism of carbohydrates.
- Level of concentration of vitamins and minerals.
- Markers of cardiovascular processes.
- Parameters of acute inflammatory period course.
- Markers of kidney pathologies.
- Markers of hepatic pathologies.
- Markers of violations of mineral metabolism in the support apparatus.
The classification of markers is conditional in connection with the belonging of a parameter to several types of metabolism. This fact is explained by the similarity of the course of metabolic processes and by the presence of identical initial and intermediate decay products. For example, bilirubin is involved in protein metabolism and the indicator of hepatic pathologies.
Timole test - an indicator of hepatic pathology and acute inflammatory period. Catabolism of proteins in the organs of the digestive system and their synthesis in cellular structures is the most complex process in the body, where malfunctions of assimilation and dissimilation processes are reflected in several indicators of biochemical blood analysis.
Biochemical blood test is assigned to patients receiving treatment in a clinic or outpatient setting. The purpose of the procedure is one of two purposes:
- disease detection or
- systemic tracking of treatment outcomes.
The doctor prescribes the appointment for analysis depending on the alleged disease, the condition of the patient and the individual parameters of his health.
- When suspected of diabetes mellitus, only one indicator is determined: the level of sugar in the blood.
- In the kidney cyst, glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis, inadequate kidney function, quantitative indices of urea and creatinine are determined.
- Hepatic assays should include the definition of 7 indicators pertaining to different groups.
After the pathology is revealed by instrumental methods, further correction of the diagnosis depends on the results of laboratory diagnostics. Refinement of the diagnosis by means of blood biochemistry is required when:
- liver pathologies associated with changes in bilirubin concentration;
- of renal and cardiac pathologies;
- hormonal disorders;
- problems of the musculoskeletal system;
- hematologic diseases;
- disorders of the functioning of the digestive system.
In dermatological practice, the symptoms of internal diseases, manifested by skin changes, indicate a disruption of the activity of a particular organ system. Often skin changes are independent dermatological diseases.
The procedure for taking blood for biochemical analysis does not have contraindications absolutely for all patients. The consequences of the procedure were not detected. However, there are cases of unreliable results if the patient has broken the period of preparation for blood collection. The unreliability of the result makes the procedure meaningless.
This occurs when:
- the patient took food less than 8 hours before taking blood or took on the eve of fatty and spicy food;
- on the day preceding the biochemical analysis, the patient used alcohol;
- for an hour preceding the procedure, the patient smoked;
- analysis is not performed on an empty stomach, but after breakfast, especially with the inclusion of sweet foods. We admit only the drinking regime with the use of still water;
- analysis is performed after significant physical exertion or psychoemotional stress;
- patient did not rest for 10 minutes before giving blood.
Safety of procedure
Avoid infection in the wound with blood sampling allows the proper execution of elementary sanitary rules by medical personnel:
- the medical worker must keep his hands clean,
- wear rubber gloves during the procedure,
- process the place for needle insertion in the patient with antiseptic solutions.
Preparing for blood sampling
In addition to the above "prohibitory" rules, patients should consider the consumption of antibacterial and hormonal drugs. If this fact is available, tell the doctor. Reliable analysis is possible only after 2 weeks after the end of the use of drugs.
In males In females Proteins Albumin 33-50 g / l Total protein 64-83 C-reactive protein( CRP) up to 5 mg / l Myoglobin 19-92 12-76 μg / l Transferrin 2,15-3,65 2,50-3,80 g / l Ferritin 20-350 10-120 μg / l ASF- 20-62 μmol / L OZSSS 50-85 ENZYMES ALT up to 45 to 34 ASAT to 41 to 31 GGT to 49 to 32 LDG to 250 Alpha amylase 27-100 Ampancreatic manway 50 CK to 190 to 167 MB Creatine kinase to 24 Alkaline phosphatase 150 120 Lipase to 190 Cholinesterase 5800-14000 Lipids Total cholesterol and lipoproteins: 3,0-6,0 mmol / l of very low density 0.26-1.04 of low density 2,2-4,8 1,92-4.51 of high density 0,7-1,73 0,8-2,28 Triglycerides 0.34-3.00 CARBOHYDRATES Glucose 3.88-5.83 mmol / L Fructosamine up to 319 μM PIGMENTS Bilirubin total 3,4-17,1 μmol / l direct to 3,4 indirect Up to 19 LOW-MOLECULAR NITROGEN SUBSTANCES Creatinine 62-115 53-97 Uric acid 210-420 145-350 Urea 2,4-6,4 mmol / L INORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND VITAMINS Serum iron 11,6-30,4 8.9-30.4 Potassium 3,5-5.5 mmol / L Calcium 2.15-2.5 Sodium 135-145 Chlorine 98-107 Magnesium 0.66-1.05 Phosphorus 0.87-1.45 Folic acid 3-17 ng / mL Indicators analysis norm Indicator units
In case of an emergency, the doctor will have an idea of possible deviations from the norm. The doctor should report any medications taken.
analysis The usual place for blood sampling is the peripheral veins on the forearm, at the site of the elbow fold. Not all patients have well-perceptible veins lying on the surface of the skin. For this reason, blood sampling can be done from veins located on the back of the hand, foot or shin.
Blood immediately after the fence comes in a plastic container for analysis, which is usually ready after a day. Express methods allow you to decipher the results of blood biochemistry after several hours.
Patient feels a slight tingling when inserting a needle to draw blood in the area of the vein. Easy discomfort passes right after extraction of the needle.
On how the biochemical blood test is performed, this video will tell:
Decoding of the results of
Each blood indicator has a certain amount of content in whole blood or plasma, which is the norm. Deviations from the norm are noticeable to non-professionals, if there is a table of biochemistry standards before the eyes. The explanation of the reasons for the deviations and the diagnosis after deciphering is the prerogative of the doctor.
- Creatinine should be no more than 0.16 mmol / l. Excess of the norm indicates renal failure. The same explanation is used when the urea rate is exceeded( not more than 6.6 mmol / L).
- With a decrease in the level of total protein suspected liver damage or depletion of the body due to malnutrition. The norm for total protein varies from 65 to 85 g / l.
The rest of the normative indices can be found in the table for decoding the norms of biochemical blood analysis in adults and children:
. For information on how much a biochemical blood test costs, see below.
Cost of procedure
In state clinics, the price of a biochemical blood test is approximately 2 times lower than in a private clinic( 1000 rubles), which creates a queue.
About ALT and AST in biochemical blood analysis will tell this video: