Atresia of the ear canal is a rare disease, which is indicated by the absence of the auditory canal. Most often it's about congenital pathology, but sometimes it happens and got it. Anomaly is observed in about 1 per 10 thousand newborns. Boys suffer from this problem more often. In the ICD 10, pathology is classified as Q16.1.
Atresia of the auditory meatus
In this pathology, the narrowing or underdevelopment of the auditory canal can be caused by:
- late pregnancy,
- infectious diseases and medication,
- with diffuse otitis and purulent diseases.
Atresia are complete and incomplete. In the first case, the auditory canal is completely absent. This problem is accompanied by hearing loss. Incomplete does not have a clear clinical picture. Under the influence of external factors, a narrow passage is blocked by a secret. Therefore, as a result, there is a persistent hearing loss.
In the place of localization, the anomalies of the cartilaginous and bony parts are distinguished. In the latter case, the problem is associated with the underdeveloped bones of the facial skeleton. Therefore, the asymmetry of the face is additionally observed. Structural disturbances are supplemented by various anomalies.
Atresia of the ear canal is:
Atresia and microtia of the auditory canal
This syndrome refers to syndromes associated with developmental disorders of gill arch 1 and 2.Pathology appears in prenatal development. Atresia is accompanied with a defect of the auricle( microtia).Disease, frolic during the formation of the fetus is often bilateral. Congenital anomaly is formed by the early closure of the first gill opening.
Closing the ear canal creates an obstacle to sound. This leads to an unavoidable hearing loss. Often congenital atresia is accompanied with paresis of the facial nerve and asymmetry of the face.
This form appears due to a traumatic injury:
- gunshot wound,
In medicine, there are cases when an abnormality appeared after surgery. This is due to errors committed during the operation. Sometimes there is a problem due to the formation of different thickness of the membranes.
Deformation leads not only to the appearance of aesthetic problems, but also to the development of hearing loss. Therefore, the earlier the problem is identified, the volume is more likely to have positive results after treatment. The symptomatology can be seen even at the stage of fetal development.
If the disease is unilateral, the second ear usually functions normally, but the child's health should be monitored, since the risk of developing bilateral bouts of hearing loss persists.
Several diagnostic measures are performed before treatment. One of the most effective is computed tomography. It allows you to exclude the bone form of the disorder. Everything begins with visual examination of the otolaryngologist.
Among the instrumental methods are informative:
As part of the diagnosis, atresia is differentiated from other ear defects.
In some cases a tamponade of lumen is performed. For this, special plastic tubing is used, which helps to prevent narrowing of the lumen. In addition to such therapy, administration of antibiotics and antihistamines is prescribed.
If the lumen is completely closed, then a surgical effect is possible. Its features depend on the symptomatology and the cause of the problem. If there is a deformation of the cartilage, a buildup of soft tissues, then plastic is done. As a result, excess connective tissue is removed. With its help, the normal shape of the lumen is fixed.
Thus, there are several requirements for candidates for surgical treatment:
- There should be adequate development of the cavity of the middle ear.
- Normal projection of the facial nerve.
- Complete functioning of structures that convert sound vibrations into nerve impulses.
Feedback on the treatment of atresia of the auditory canal:
With a congenital anomaly, the prognosis is unsatisfactory. This is due to the fact that no shortcomings can be rectified by any means. If the problem of closure is associated only with the membrane, then you can achieve increased hearing. It is believed that the more pronounced bone atresia, the more insignificant the results from treatment.