Oncology of the skin of a malignant origin is a formation formed from skin epithelial cells. Pathology has no definite preferences and is diagnosed in patients of different age and sex groups.
However, scientists note a certain pattern in the development of such an oncology in people with a light skin tone over 60 years of age, long in the sun. Although theoretically skin cancer can develop from any mole, regardless of its location. To do this, in the birthmark is sufficient for the presence of at least one malignant cell.
Classification of skin cancer
Skin cancer has several classifications according to structural differences, histological features, morphological features, etc.
Select the types of skin cancer:
- Cell cancer or malignant melanoma - a similar oncological form formed from melanocytes rarely metastasizes but can releaseprocesses, penetrating the circulatory and lymphatic system. If this happens, then melanoma will quickly spread to the organs, and the patient's survival rate probably will not exceed a year;
This photo clearly shows the initial( 1) stage of melanoma, skin cancer on the face
- Basal skin cancer - a similar type of cancer is widespread( 75%), characterized by a tendency to relapse, but practically does not allow metastasis. Education is characterized by slow growth. For localization more often chooses the scalp or epidermis, can be multiple or single. Basal cancer is a slightly protruding above the skin formation of a dark red or pinkish hue of round shape.
Photo shows a basal kind of skin cancer on the scalp, nose, arm and leg.
- Squamous cell carcinoma - a similar kind of cancer can be located anywhere on the skin, however, it most often develops in open areas and the lower lip. Special selectivity regarding gender does not have education, but prefers patients of retirement age. Squamous cell carcinoma is a nodular formation, with development the tumor practically loses mobility and becomes bleeding.
Rare varieties of
Specialists have separately classified the relatively rare skin cancers( less than 1% of cases):
- Cutaneous sarcoma - localized mainly on the limbs and trunk, growing from connective tissue particles of the skin. It can manifest itself in several variants - dermatofibrosarcoma swelling, Kaposi's sarcoma, etc.;
- Merkel cells oncology is a tumor localized mainly on the head or face of elderly patients, and in half of the cases, the neoplasm produces multiple distant metastases.
Oncologists distinguish such cancers:
- The papillary form of is considered the rarest form of cutaneous cancer, it is a tuberous formation covered with multiple papillae. Such formation is prone to rapid metastasis and sprouting into the body, which leads to rapid depletion of the patient;
- Infiltrating - is a pitting with a bumpy crust and dense edges. Such a neoplasm is characterized by rapid germination in neighboring tissues, which quickly leads to its immobility;
- Surface oncology is manifested by dense nodule neoplasms of a yellow-white hue, which subsequently degenerate into uneven plaques with a small depression in the center.
Causes and Risk Factors
The following people are at particular risk of developing skin tumors:
- With Bowen's disease;
- Being in old age;
- Light-skinned, with genetically reduced melanin content;
- With senile keratoma;
- With melanoma-hazardous pigmentation spots;
- Having eritroplasia keira;
- suffering from cutaneous horn;
- With pigmentary xeroderma;
- Having inflammatory skin pathologies;
- Sufferers of nicotine addiction;
- Durable in the open sun;
- Abusing a visit to the solarium.
In addition to the at-risk group, physicians identify several other factors contributing to the development of cutaneous malignant oncology:
- Complication against a background of radiation-induced dermatitis;
- Chemical exposure to carcinogenic substances, for example, arsenic compounds, tar present in cigarettes, or lubricants;
- Damage in place of the old cicatrix;
- Radiation exposure;
- The use of products containing carcinogenic substances like nitrites, nitrates, marinades, smoked products, preservatives and over-fatty foods;
- Exposure to a variety of thermal factors or thermal radiation;
- Breach of the integrity of the birthmark;
- Oncology at the site where a deep burn was previously;
- Abuse of tattooing;
- The presence of hepatitis or HIV infection;
- Accommodation in the southern countries.
How to identify a tumor at the initial stage?
A characteristic feature of skin cancer is its preferred location on the open body.
Symptomatic manifestations of
Each form and type of skin cancer is characterized by a separate symptom, and the identical skin oncology in individual patients proceeds in different ways. But there are common primary manifestations of the symptoms, which define skin cancer:
- The appearance of a non-passing stain on the skin with fuzzy boundaries, gradually increasing in size;
- The formation of a small sore that does not respond to treatment, which gradually acquires soreness and bleeding;
- Suddenly the mole has changed, has become darker or has changed structure;
- An unusual nodule-like formation of violet, red, pink or black hue was formed;
- Formation of seals or solid formations that have a flaky or coarsened surface;
- Formation of a white scar-like stain having a less elastic structure than conventional nearby tissues.
Symptoms of skin changes in children
Skin cancer affects children in childhood relatively infrequently( less than 1%). There are two types of cancer: squamous and basal cell.
Squamous is more often localized on the face, extremities, ears, hairy area on the head, forming against the background of pigment xeroderma. Education allows metastases to nearby lymph nodes, distant metastasis is not observed.
In the photo, the child with the last stage pigmented xeroderma is a rare type of skin cancer observed in children.
The picture shows the cancerous pigmentary xeroderm of the facial skin, involving the eye
Basal cell skin cancer also prefers the face surface. This oncological form is a tight knot, gradually causing the appearance of a number of similar formations with which it merges, occupying all the larger areas.
In the development of skin cancer similar to other oncology, the corresponding staging is observed.
- 1 stage - the initial stage of development of a skin tumor, which is characterized by its small size( not more than 2 cm).Cancer of the skin of the first stage is distinguished by the absence of metastases and high mobility, it moves without difficulty with the skin, although its lower layers are affected. The prognosis of treatment at this stage is favorable, since most patients manage to completely recover from skin cancer.
- 2 stage - characterized by an increase in the tumor to 4 mm, although malignant cells have not yet managed to reach the lymph nodes. In isolated cases, a metastasis is found near the tumor in the lymph node. There may be a feeling of soreness in the area of the neoplasm. This stage is characterized by a 50% five-year survival rate, but only on condition of timely and adequate therapy.
- In 3 stages of , active lymph node involvement occurs, although metastasis is not yet observed in the organs. The tumor becomes tuberous and causes a lot of unpleasant sensations. Education at this stage already sprouts into the subcutaneous tissues, so it loses its mobility. For this stage, a five-year survival rate is observed in only a third of patients.
- The formation of in 4 stages acquires large dimensions, covering large areas of the skin. The tumor sprouts into the body, involving cartilage and bone tissue in the cancerous processes. Usually at this stage the neoplasm is bleeding, it poisons all the systems of the body, spreading metastases along them. Usually the liver suffers first, then the lungs. At this stage, the five-year survival rate is excessively small and does not exceed 20%.
Each type of skin cancer is distinguished by its set of cells with different aggressiveness, therefore, these neoplasms behave differently.
What are the dangerous skin cancers:
- Basaloma is not inclined to metastasis, differs by slow growth, often found in the nose.
- The squamous cell oncology , on the contrary, grows rapidly and metastasizes throughout the body.
- The most dangerous form is melanoma , difficult to treat and often causing a lot of complications.
Diagnostic process includes procedures like:
- Computer tomography;
- Positron Emission Tomography;
- Laboratory blood tests, skin cancer cancer markers, hepatic serology, etc.
How to cure the pathology of
The therapeutic process is complex. After identifying the specific type and stage of oncology, the physician selects an appropriate curative plan. The main techniques used in the treatment of skin cancer:
- Surgical treatment is the removal of a tumor by the open method. It is used for oncology of limbs, the body or for getting rid of metastases.
- Radiotherapy involves the conduct of irradiation when surgical treatment is not feasible, either in the re-development of oncology;
- The chemotherapeutic approach is traditionally used for the treatment of recurrent oncological forms, as well as for large tumor sizes. The technique is based on the use of drugs that have a destructive effect on cancer cells. Often, this treatment uses a special anti-cancer ointment, which is shown to be applied to the tumor daily, for several weeks;
- The photodynamic method is successfully used in the treatment of cancer, localized in the upper skin layers. The technique is based on the use of a specialized drug applied to the oncology site, after which the area undergoes a light treatment, under the influence of which the drug applied is activated and destroys cancer cells;
- Laser treatment successfully eliminates oncocells with a highly active beam of rays;
- The method of fulguration involves the removal of cancer cells by means of special tools, after which the operation zone is treated with an electric current that kills the remaining cancer cells;
- Cryotherapy is justified only in case of a superficial location of the tumor. The method assumes freezing the malignant material with liquid nitrogen.
Along with the above procedures, immunostimulating therapy is prescribed, which increases the resistance of the organism to cancer cells. For this purpose, the administration of Interferon, 5-fluorouracil, Imiquimoda, Aldesleyikin, Dakarbazine and other medications is prescribed.
Skin cancer requires a cardinal revision of the diet.
There are many products that can suppress the growth of malignant cells:
- Hot pepper red;
- Whole grain.
The practice of recent years shows that the forecast for a five-year survival rate for squamous carcinoma of the initial forms is about 90%, and at the final stages it is not more than 60%.
If the patient's body has responded to the anticancer treatment adequately, then in the future there may not be a relapse.
For malignant melanoma, the prognosis is also good.
In the initial stages, survival rates are slightly higher than 95%, and at the final stage - not more than 20%.
Metastasis and life expectancy
Most often, with skin cancer, melanoma is metastasized, spreading through the body through the blood and lymphopaths. After surgical excision of melanoma, 9 out of a dozen patients within a 5-year period reveal metastases that are usually located in the subcutaneous tissue and on the surface of the skin.
With this metastasis, the patient's life expectancy ranges from six months to one and a half years. If metastasis has gone to internal organs or the brain, then the life expectancy of patients with skin cancer is reduced to 3-6 months.
The main predisposing to oncology factor is UV radiation, therefore it is necessary to minimize its harmful effect.
Video about the first signs of skin cancer: