Depending on the location of the neoplasm, its stage, and the type( benign, malignant), one of the operations is prescribed:
- resection - partial removal of the gland, characteristic for the localization of the tail of the body
- vyluschivanie - as incomplete removal of cancer, often for insula
- duodenia -complex intervention affecting most border organs( with their full or partial removal)
- distal ectomy - body and tail organ cancer, contraindications - inexperienced surgeon, developmental stage higher than secondsecond, it must be strictly observed onkologichskie principles.
Operations for pancreatic cancer
Laparatoscopy is used for direct visual inspection of the organ by inserting into the incision equipment. It serves as a method for accurate diagnosis of the pancreas, which results in a diagnosis of the operability of the tumor( or its inability to detect metastases).
Anesthesia can be general or local, instead of a cavity incision, several punctures are made, the duration varies within 3 - 2 hours. Convenient location of the cancer in combination with small size allows you to remove it in this way with the help of special tools. All other operations of the pancreas are of the open type:
- vyluschivanie - the tumor does not have a capsule, the surgeons try to remove less tissue, the duct of the organ is examined, if necessary, an anastomosis( plastic tube replacing the duct) is sent to the small intestine.
- pancreactomy -on benign tumors, for access to the malignant open the abdominal cavity, spleen can be saved rarely, just like the bile and lymph nodes, the areas of the intestine are cut out with lesions struckand
The last operation is the most complicated, complications can become:
- damage to neighboring organs
- penetration of pancreatic enzymes into the cavity
- reaction to anesthesia
- profuse bleeding
Sometimes, tumor removal is performed after chemotherapy or radiation therapy( reduce the size of the neoplasm).The patient is given tests, hardware examinations, physical examinations. There is a list of drugs that stop taking one week before the surgery:
- antithrombocinarnye - dopiridamole, ticlopidine, clopidogrel
- blood thinning - warfarin, ginkgo biloba, lecithin
- antibiotics - naproxen, ibuprofen
The postoperative wound is stitched with a non-absorbable seam, the drainage tube is removed throughContrast. Synthetic seams of slow absorption are used in case of damage to the gland duct. The presence of future complications depends on the technique of enucleation.
Pancreas head tumor operation
Pancreatic head tumor surgery is performed in connection with organ damage and the possibility of affecting nearby soft tissues. Emergency surgical intervention is required only in those cases when the patient has signs of internal bleeding or peritonitis. When the patient is in stable condition, a planned operation is performed.
No general anesthesia, surgical intervention is not carried out. Today, most often, partial resection is carried out using Whipple technology, which has 2 stages. At the first stage, a laparoscopic method is used that allows a more detailed examination of the organ and an assessment of the extent of its damage. And only after that they start the second stage - the operation itself, during which a 2 - 3 cm incision is made on the patient's body, which opens access to the head of the pancreas.
Since the tumor has the ability to spread to the nearest organs, it may be necessary to remove the affected parts of the duodenum, gall bladder and lymph nodes. After their removal, the doctor performs an "assembly" of the digestive system, connecting the body of the pancreas with healthy organs.
Pancreatic cancer after operation
Pancreatic cancer after the operation can give relapses, so the patient must regularly take tests that determine the level of hormones in the blood, which when the tumor starts to rise rapidly.
Analyzes also allow to determine the presence of inflammatory processes in the body that occur in cancer in 30% of cases.
If any indicator exceeds the norm, the patient should undergo a complete examination to detect pathology. And, in case of repeated detection of a tumor, there is a need for repeated surgical intervention.
Pancreas removal in cancer
Complete removal of the pancreas in cancer allows you to reinsure the patient from further relapses and complications that occur after partial resection.
However, this method of treatment has one big drawback - the patient will be forced throughout his life to take special drugs whose substances will replace the enzymes produced by the pancreas necessary for normal digestion.