Acute gastroenteritis is mostly infectious. The microorganisms that cause this disease have a pathological effect on the walls of the small intestine and stomach, and as a result, these organs become inflamed. But it can also be an unspecified etiology. The onset of the disease can be recognized by certain symptoms corresponding to its form, the type of infectious agent that caused the pathology, the etiology and severity of the course. Gastroenteritis of moderate severity is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- Acute gastroenteritis is always manifested by a disorder of the stool and nausea, often resulting in vomiting;
- Feces change color on greenish or orange with inclusions of mucous or blood inclusions;
- The consistency of the stool becomes liquid, having an unpleasant odor, and a large amount of gases accumulate in the intestine;
- In the epigastric region, severe pain is localized, which can be spilled, and can concentrate around the navel.
These symptoms of acute gastroenteritis are of a frequent nature and are intensified during meals. When the pathology is exacerbated, the presence of intoxication in the body is also strongly pronounced, which can be determined by a sharp decrease in appetite and temperature rise to critical and febrile units, malaise, weakness, lethargy.
In case of severe exacerbation of gastroenteritis, dehydration of the body is added to the listed signs, which is very dangerous and, in the absence of immediate adequate treatment, can result in death. Dehydration is recognized in both adult patients and in children with an acute form of pathology along the following lines:
- The skin turgor decreases;
- The tongue and mucous membranes become dry;
- Skin and hair are also very dry.
All these signs usually accompany an exacerbation of a gastroenteritis of average gravity and its transition to the next, practically not curable form.
Causes and Diagnosis of Acute Gastroenteritis
Acute gastroenteritis in the adult patient can be caused by various bacteria and viruses, as well as food poisoning, alcohol abuse or long-term antibiotic treatment. Each of these factors can disrupt the balance of microflora in the intestine and stomach and cause an attack that develops against a backdrop of inaccuracies in the diet or a decrease in immunity. Since the main factors that cause the development of this disease are quite diverse, very often the diagnosis initially puts acute gastroenteritis of unspecified etiology of mild or moderate severity.
But in connection with the fact that the correctness of the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis and the choice of the method of treatment depend on the pathogen that triggered the onset of pathology development, the most precise diagnosis is needed, consisting not only of careful collection of anamnesis and biological material for laboratory studies, butand the application of instrumental methods( colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy).Required and ultrasound of the abdominal cavity. Algorithm for diagnosing the following:
- A complete history of the disease( time and approximate cause of symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting);
- Adults also have a history of life, which indicates the culture of nutrition, the presence of chronic diseases and bad habits;
- A family history is also needed, indicating the presence of gastrointestinal diseases in close relatives and the frequency of exacerbations.
In addition to clarifying these factors of the patient's life, the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis provides for a primary examination of the abdomen of the skin and tongue, laboratory studies of feces, blood and vomit, as well as an instrumental method for visual inspection of the inner surface of the small intestine. Only after carrying out such thorough research, the specialist has the opportunity to make a more accurate diagnosis and choose the correct method of treatment based on which the patient should observe a strict diet.
How is acute gastroenteritis transmitted?
When a person has symptoms of this pathology, the first thought to arise is: "How is it transmitted, where did I pick it up"?To this question of the patient any specialist will answer that the disease is very easily transmitted in case of non-observance of elementary hygienic rules from one person to another and in the absence of adequate therapy or self-treatment ends with dehydration, collapse and death.
Infection in communicating with a patient suffering from this disease occurs both in close contact, kissing, and when using shared utensils. In addition to the question of how acute gastroenteritis is transmitted, it can be answered that it is very easy to catch when eating foods that have not been adequately cooked, or poorly washed vegetables and fruits, and through dirty hands. The incubation period for this disease can last from 1 to 4 days, after which all the symptoms accompanying this disease will appear.
Code of acute gastroenteritis for ICD 10
To facilitate classification of this pathology, which has several varieties and select appropriate treatment in the international classification of diseases( ICD-10), it is assigned code K52.Under it are collected all possible types of gastroenteritis, as well as the phases of its exacerbation.
Thanks to this handbook used to monitor morbidity and all other health problems, specialists were able to easily identify the developing pathology, which allows to avoid inaccuracies in the name of the disease when diagnosing, as well as doctors from different countries to exchange professional experience.
For example, in the case when a gastroenterologist marks a patient's ICD code 10 K-52.1 in the case history, this means that he is classified as toxic gastroenteritis. If additional information is needed on the substance that caused the acute form of this disease, an additional code of external causes is used. Thanks to this classification, doctors all over the world can apply a single tactic in the therapy of this ailment.
The role of diet in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis
To achieve the speedy recovery of patients with this disease, all therapies should be conducted only against the background of the appropriate diet. Acute gastroenteritis, taking place against the backdrop of inflammatory processes, requires attention to the organization of rational nutrition.
Diet in the acute form of the disease becomes an integral part of therapy and helps to speed up the recovery process. At the very first signs of the disease that appear, it is necessary to completely abandon the intake of any food. This will reduce the load on the digestive organs to reduce the inflammatory process and alleviate the general condition of the patient. In the same case, if adequate treatment of the disease is absent, a prediction for the patient may well be a collapse or death.