Considering the endocrine part of the pancreas, physiologists distinguish a special group of pancreatic disorderly arranged distinctive cells that have received the unusual name of the islets of Langerhans. This name was given by the name of the scientist, who in 1869 first identified this cluster. Later this doctrine was continued by Sobolev. He found that if the composition of these clusters changes, diabetes can develop. In a newborn islet, approximately 6% of the total volume of the pancreas takes up, which is associated with a large production of insulin. Then their number is reduced. In adults up to 50 years old they occupy about 1-2% of the total mass of the gland and have about 2,000,000 pieces. In elderly people, the islet part of the pancreas again slightly increases and reaches 3%.A large number of them are collected in the tail. Pancreatic islets are very small in size. They reach only 100-300 microns, they decrease slightly in size in old age. At any age they are very important. The islets of Langerhans are heterogeneous in composition and function. They consist of cells of three different types, and therefore produce three different hormones, performing the endocrine function. Supply of blood pancreatic islets is much more effective than other parts of the pancreas.
Tumors of the islet part of the pancreas are very rare, but still they are. Most often, metastases consist of one type of cells, and then affect nearby organs.
Difference in the islet cell
Each islet of the Langerhans pancreas consists of several kinds of cells containing small cytoplasmic granules in vesicles surrounded by a membrane. It can include from 80 to 200 cells. The most significant part of the cluster is occupied by beta cells. They are very important for the body as a whole, because they are responsible for the production and release of insulin, which regulates blood sugar levels. Equally important is the importance of alpha cells located side by side. Their meaning is also inexorable. Only they can secrete glucagon, which can increase the level of glucose in the body. Significantly smaller islets of the pancreas contain delta cells secreting three very important hormones, one of which is somatostatin. In addition, the islet apparatus of Langerhans contains PP cells, which are responsible for the preservation of bile in the body before the next meal.