Malignant gastric cancer is a common ailment, especially among older men. Cancer is formed from a layer of cells lining the gastric mucosa, and can quickly spread to nearby organs. In most cases, this cancer leads to the death of the patient.
Cancer of the stomach
Malignant tumor - stomach cancer can form in any of its parts. The following factors can contribute to this disease:
- Genetic predisposition increases the risk of an illness by 20%.
- Incorrect food( absence of fresh vegetables and fruits in the menu, constant use of smoked, overcooked, canned, spicy, salty foods).
- Lack of vitamins B and C.
- Abuse of alcohol, especially strong alcoholic beverages.
- Chronic diseases( gastritis with low acidity, polyp, ulcer).
- Operations on this part of the digestive tract increase the probability of malignant growth by a factor of 2.5.
- Helicobacter pylori infection. This bacterium belongs to the first class carcinogens.
The cause of the degeneration of normal healthy epithelial cells into cancer has not yet been established.
Malignant neoplasms of the stomach
A small malignant formation in most cases remains unnoticed, because it does not manifest itself in any way. Rarely, the following changes in the body can be observed:
- Lack of appetite.
- Appearance of aversion to any kind of food, for example, meat.
- Increase body temperature by 1-2 degrees.
- Decreased hemoglobin level.
When a malignant neoplasm of the stomach increases to an impressive size, the patient begins to worry about new symptoms:
- Constipation, diarrhea.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Increased abdominal volume due to ascites.
- Pain at the top of the abdomen.
- Weight reduction.
- Internal bleeding( with destruction of malignant neoplasm of vessels)
During the examination of the stomach, the most suspicious zones are identified. A biopsy is performed. As a result, a malignant neoplasm or benign can be confirmed. The sooner this illness is diagnosed, the greater the chance of avoiding a fatal outcome.
Treating a malignant tumor of the stomach
The primary role in the treatment of this ailment belongs to the surgical procedure. This method depends on the degree of tumor spread, lymph node involvement and the presence of metastases. Treatment with radiation or chemotherapy is still under discussion.
In order to remove stomach cancer, there are 3 types of surgery, depending on the area of the tumor:
- When the lower half of the stomach is affected, subtotal resection is performed;
- When the tumor spreads to the upper third of the stomach, a gastrectomy is performed;
- If there are small limited cardiac lesions, then proximal resection is performed.
Removal of the stomach always occurs in combination with a small and large omentum. Sometimes it is necessary to partially remove and neighboring organs, which were also affected by the tumor. In the operation, careful study and maintenance of postoperative recovery is necessary.
For a more gentle recovery after surgery, a thorough preoperative preparation should be carried out. It consists in the treatment, which is intended for general strengthening of the body with the help of protein preparations, vitamins, tonic and liquid. If there is a stagnation of undigested food in the stomach, then it is necessary to carry out its washing.
Within three days after the resection and during the period from four to six days after the gastrectomy, rectal intake of any food or water is excluded. To ensure that the body is not depleted, intravenous infusions of essential nutrients are made. The calculation of the body's need for substances is based on blood tests.
If the stomach cancer takes a form in which the operation is impossible, then the only possible type of treatment is used - chemotherapy.