In many adults, the difficulty of speech begins in childhood and does not leave them after episodic treatment. People often resign themselves to their position and consider it hopeless. This opinion is absolutely untenable, why - this article will help to understand.
History and description of the disease
The difficulty of speech in the form of stuttering has been described even in ancient times.
Until the end of the 19th century, attempts to study the nature of stuttering were single, and there were no methods for treating it.
This was due to two reasons:
- stuttering has always remained a rare phenomenon, not dangerous to others;
- even more rare were the cases of getting rid of stammers from ailment as a result of medical manipulations.
The suffering person remained alone with his problem, when communicating, he caused annoyance and sympathy at the same time. With a disdainful attitude toward people who say words with multiple stumbles, you can meet now.
Therefore, stutterers try to talk less, especially in the presence of strangers, limit contacts, deliberately narrow the circle of communication. In the 20th century, medical science fully recognized the need and relevance of specialized care for stutterers.
Modern methods of stutter correction in adult patients take into account their individual characteristics, include a detailed examination of the body and have a positive dynamics as a result of the treatment.
External symptoms, features of the manifestation and diagnosis of stuttering
Speech therapists are well aware that the involvement of many specialists - neurologists and psychologists, in the first place - is required to effectively help patients with difficulties in verbal communication.
What are the main symptoms of stuttering?
The diagnosis is made to an adult patient in cases of pronounced deviation of speech from normal rhythm and articulation.
Difficulties are aggravated by involuntary grimaces and repetitive movements of the facial muscles - tics.
There are two forms of violations of in pronunciation of words due to the type of convulsions of the respiratory, articulatory and vocal muscles:
- tonic - with stretching of vowels and sonorous sounds, with unnatural pauses between words, with a break in pronouncing the sounds inside the syllable,
- clonic - with a repetition of someand those consonant sounds, syllables or short words.
There is a mixed, tonic-clonic form, combining the listed symptoms. With all forms of stuttering, the intermittent, spastic nature of speech is expressed.
Sounds are blocked in the throat, and it seems that the person is making significant efforts to "push out".
Intermittent speech can be a feature of pronunciation and in people without stuttering. The doctor pays attention to the comparative frequency and duration of the interruption of the smooth flow of the speech stream:
- There is a technique for calculating the number of breaks per 100 words. Normally, this figure is 7%.Then, speech deceleration is not defined as unnatural. A stammering person is interrupted in 10% of a hundred words or more.
- The duration of breaks in pronunciation in a "problem" patient is clearly expressed, ranging from one to 30 seconds and is accompanied by a noticeable muscle tension.
This fact is considered an important argument in favor of the possibility of curing adult patients from stuttering.
Men are predisposed to the occurrence of speech defects much stronger than women. Medical statistics show that there are only two women in five stuttering men. Features of the structure of the female brain represent a natural defense against speech ailment.
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Causes of stuttering in adults
It is common to distinguish between neurotic stuttering( logoneurosis) and organic, or neurosis-like.
In a conversation with the patient, the doctor finds out whether the symptoms are permanent or their manifestation depends on the circumstances of the speech act. The patient is assigned to the brain in the form of an electroencephalogram.
If the encephalographic examination reveals the presence of abnormalities in the functioning of the brain structures responsible for speech functions, then stammering is classified as organic.
It is characterized by persistent symptoms that occur even in a calm and familiar environment for the patient:
- In adults, organic stuttering occurs as a complication after a stroke, craniocerebral injury, and other diseases with motor damage.
- tumor processes in the brain can mechanically inhibit the passage of nerve impulses and be the causes of speech disorders.
Logoneurosis in adults have as a cause stressful situations and deep nervous shocks. In these cases, stuttering is not physiologically fixed and largely depends on the level of emotional stress of a person.
Neurotic stuttering is amplified when necessary to speak in an unfamiliar environment or in front of several people. There are cases of temporary stammering, which appears immediately after a strong fright, affect, anger and passes after a certain time, together with a reduction in the tension of the situation. For effective help, a person may have enough hot drink or a small dose of alcohol.
Timely qualified care for a stressful logoneurosis is especially important. Otherwise, a pathological stereotype is formed, stuttering turns into a chronic form, convulsive syndromes, nervous tics and twitching join external speech problems. Psychological discomfort grows, communication with other people becomes tiresome until exhaustion.
The picture is complicated by hereditary predisposition and already formed speech habits. Treatment courses for these patients can last several years.
In the video, the doctor tells what is the real cause and what is the trigger of the stutter:
Methods of stuttering in adults
Researchers stuttering in the opinion that a successful approach to the problem requires an integrated approach that takes into account the biological, psychological and social aspect of the phenomenon.
Methods of correction of stammering in adults include medication, speech therapy and psychotherapeutic measures.
Medical treatment method
This method is focused on the removal of convulsive syndromes and the stabilization of nervous reactions with the help of various medications:
- Anticonvulsant, antispasmodic drugs for oral administration: magnerot, midokalm, finlepsin. As an additional tool is used milgamma - a complex of B vitamins.
- Sedatives that reduce nervous tension: glycine, grandaxin, afobazol. A good result is observed with the use of complex herbal preparations Novopassit and Dormiplant in the form of tablets or herbal medicines - valerian, motherwort, lemon balm.
Logopaedic methods of stutter treatment in adult patients
Focus on changing stereotypical speech habits.
Methods of correction of stuttering can be divided into three groups:
- formation of a new, correct speech technique in a person, including breathing, voice control, natural articulation;
- mastering the learned skills on complex material - when reading and free story;
- automation of skills in the simulation of various speech situations, the development of emotional resistance to possible difficulties in talking with other people.
This scheme is rather arbitrary, since logopedic techniques are constantly being improved and applied taking into account the individual characteristics of patients, individually or in groups. How to cure the stammering in adults is decided by the attending physician, taking into account all the conditions and overall health of the patient.
The technique of treatment of stammering LZ Arutyunyan is known, aimed not at correction of individual speech disorders, but on the formation of an entirely new speech-motor skill.
Psychotherapeutic methods for overcoming stuttering
Include rational and suggestive therapy, in addition patients are trained in auto-training:
- Rational methods are implemented in the form of doctor's interviews with patients, in order to form an adequate, constructive attitude of the patient to solve their problem.
- The suggestive technique is the patient's passing one or more hypnosis sessions. During the suggestion, the doctor pays attention to the emotional sphere of the patient and the state of his breathing, articulation and vocal apparatus.
- Mastering the methods of auto-training allows stammers to help themselves. These skills remain with them for life and fix the result of treatment.
Therapeutic physical training successfully complements special courses of treatment. Simple exercises not only help to strengthen the speech muscles, but have a beneficial effect on the general condition of the nervous system of people suffering from stammering.
Respiratory gymnastics of Strelnikova , yoga classes under the guidance of an experienced instructor will give the patient a foundation on which he can later base independent studies.
There is evidence of the positive effects of acupuncture and acupuncture on speech problems.
There are also questionable therapies, such as, for example, a prayer for stuttering. In medical practice, they are rarely used, because it has not been scientifically proven that with their help one can get rid of stuttering.
How long should the stammering be treated and how much is the treatment for
Promises for one hypnosis session to permanently rid of stuttering should not be misleading a modern person.
Instant healing can be an illusion that will quickly disappear at the first stress. The mood for long-term treatment for literate professionals is the best position for overcoming a difficult speech problem.
The exact terms will be determined by the medical staff, depending on the patient's condition. If the treatment includes a basic course in a hospital, it lasts about 30 days and can be extended in an outpatient setting for another 3-6 months or a year. It is not uncommon for a situation where it is advisable to repeat courses annually, for several years.
Positive shifts in the condition of patients inspire them and make treatment desirable and even more fruitful. The question of the price of procedures is relevant, but the various opportunities for passing courses and a combination of procedures allow you to choose the best option.
Average prices for treatment are:
- in the Central Committee in Moscow - from 60 to 100 thousand rubles,
- in the CCR in Kiev - 50 thousand rubles.,
- in the clinic "Hadassah" in Israel - 55-60 thousand dollars,
- in the MC "Hope" inMinsk - 45-50 thousand rubles.(RUR),
- in the Center for Healthy Speech in Yekaterinburg - 100 thousand rubles.
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How to prevent the development of stuttering, and whether the complete cure
is realistic. Preventive measures protecting against speech disorders include caring for one's own mental health. It is impossible to insure yourself against stress, but it is quite possible to increase the stability of the psyche.
Even single manifestations of uncontrolled speech malfunctions during a nervous strain should make a person seek help from a doctor.
Information about solid clinics that accept patients with stuttering is available on the Internet. With a great success, complex rehabilitation systems for adult patients are used, whose authors are NM Asatiani and NA Vlasova, Yu. B. Nekrasova, and VM Shklovsky.
Systems unite efforts of doctors of different specializations - speech therapist, psychiatrist, psychotherapist, neurologist.
The results of the work of specialized clinics give reasonable hopes to thousands of patients. One can say with certainty: a person suffering from stuttering in adulthood should and can receive effective and effective medical care.
Doctor Snezhko R.A.talks about how to deal with stuttering and whether complete cure is possible with the use of modern methods of treatment: