Recently, the problem of helminthiases has become very common. According to the WHO during the year, more than 15 million people are infected with helminths. Especially dangerous in terms of invasion of helminths is the consumption of fish. The population consumes raw fish massively, since Japanese cuisine has become very popular now.
Parasites are found in species that inhabit both riverine and marine salt water. Almost all the fish that are in fresh water are infected with helminths. Particularly noteworthy is the family of carp. These include roach, bream, roach, etc.- species in which eggs of worms are most often found. The photo shows helminths in fish. What marine fish have helminths? Worms can be found in mackerel, hake, horse mackerel, cod and many others. Are there worms in salted or smoked fish? Yes, this is a frequent phenomenon today. Sometimes it is possible to detect parasites in canned fish. This is due to poor quality control of the products, improper cooking or storage conditions.
In both riverine and marine species, helminths of various classes are found, which include:
The most common diseases are: opisthorchiasis, diphyllobothriasis, clonorchiasis, nanofeitosis, metagonism, anisakiasis, ligulosis.
The most dangerous for humans is the ribbon worm in fish, which can reach up to 15 meters.
Can fish get infected with worms? Oh sure. However, helminths do not exert such negative influence on fish, since they are only a temporary host, and a man is the final one.
Worms in fish - can it be eaten?
What if the worms are in the meat of the fish( as in the photo)?It all depends on the type of product and the way it is prepared. It is known that fish worms die at temperatures below 25 degrees and above 100 degrees. That is, if the product has been either frozen or thermally processed, it becomes usable.
Rules for the thermal treatment of fish: cook for at least 30 minutes, fry at least 20( if the fish is large, you must first cut it along the spine or into smaller pieces), bake for at least 40 minutes.
At a temperature below 25 degrees the product is disinfected within 15 hours. Larvae of helminths die with saline after 10-14 days. Leave to dry for at least 3 weeks.
At the moment, sushi is widely distributed, for the preparation of which raw fillets are used.
What happens if you eat fish with worms? If the helminths were in the meat of the frozen fish or in the one that was subjected to the correct heat treatment, then there are no reasons for concern. If the fish is raw or the rules of cooking have been violated, urgent measures should be taken to prevent the infection with helminths.
Symptoms of worms from fish
The first clinical manifestations of infection do not appear immediately. All depends on the incubation period of helminthiosis, the time frame of which can range from a couple of days to several months( for example, with diphyllobothriasis, the incubation period can be 60 days).General signs:
- lethargy, drowsiness;
- fatigue at low loads;
- mood swings;
- body temperature up to 38 degrees;
- rash, which is accompanied by itching;
- is a nausea that can result in vomiting;
- diarrhea or constipation;
- weight shift;
- nervous breakdown.
At the same time, only a few manifestations can be observed. It is worth noting the clinical picture of the most common helminthiases from fish:
- Opisthorchiasis. Asymptomatic interval lasting 2-4 weeks. Main manifestations: headache, fatigue, arthralgia and myalgia, cough, asthmatic suffocation, high body temperature( 39-40 degrees), skin rash, yellow sclera, enlarged liver and spleen. Seek medical help with opisthorchiasis urgently, since frequent complications that require urgent surgery are common;
- Diphyllobothriasis. The period without symptoms is 30-60 days. Manifestations: asthenovegetative syndrome, temperature not higher than 38 degrees, but sometimes it can reach febrile digits, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea or constipation. Red spots of saturated color appear on the tongue;
- Clonorhoz. The time of reproduction of the parasite without manifestations is 14-30 days. Clinic: characterized by an acute onset, a temperature of 38-39 degrees, skin rashes, myalgia, arthralgia, sclera and yellow skin, hepatosplenomegaly, pain in the right upper quadrant, diarrhea, bloating;
- Nanophytaemia. The incubation period is 1-3 weeks. Signs: weight quickly goes away, the skin is white with a bluish tinge, the mucous pale, feeling bad, the head spinning, the stomach hurts. There is a disorder of the stool in the form of diarrhea or constipation. A characteristic feature is the occurrence of nausea and salivation, mainly at night;
- Anizakiosis. The period of reproduction and spread of the parasite in the body is from several hours to two weeks. Symptoms: the head hurts badly, the temperature rises to 38 degrees, the sick feel sick, after a time tears, sometimes even with blood, a distinct pain in the abdomen. A characteristic feature is an allergy from small rash to edema of Quincke;
- Metagonome. Period without manifestations - up to 10 days. The disease begins with the appearance of a rash on the body without raising the temperature. After that, signs of a defeat of the digestive tract appear: appetite, nausea, stomach aches, diarrhea.
What should I do if I ate fish with worms?
A doctor should be consulted immediately for medical assistance for timely diagnosis and early treatment. This is due to the fact that there are types of helminths that can cause a number of complications, which in the future can lead to surgical interventions, and in particularly severe or neglected cases - to death. Therefore, if a helminthic invasion in a fish is found, it is better to immediately get rid of it and not risk your health.
It is compulsory to examine the whole family, since many fishworms can be transmitted by contact. In addition, in children and some adults, parasites often do not produce any clinical manifestations. So sometimes you can not even suspect the presence of worms in humans. For control, it is necessary to pass an analysis of feces to the eggs of the worm, and this analysis must be repeated several times at intervals of a week. But even after this, it is not always possible to detect traces of the presence of worms. Therefore, many doctors advise the prevention of antihelminthic drugs twice a year.
To avoid re-infection, an important condition during treatment is mandatory hygiene, a medical diet.
When using fish meat in which worms have been found( pictured) or if there are any signs of helminthic invasion, one should not start self-treatment, but it is necessary to immediately seek medical help. First, in such a situation, it is possible to trigger the course of the disease due to an improperly selected drug. Secondly, many anthelminthic drugs are toxic, so treatment can not only not save the worms, but also harm your body.
Also, do not immediately incline to drug therapy, as there are many folk remedies that are suitable for treating both adults and children.