Stomach ulcer is manifested as a result of pathological formation on the walls and mucous membrane. All this begins with an inflammatory process. Inflammation is not only the place where the defect occurs, but the entire digestive organ.
Many factors contribute to the onset of the disease( stress, depression, prolonged use of certain drugs, hereditary predisposition).
The disease can proceed calmly( asymptomatically), and may manifest as sharp exacerbations that are seasonal in nature( mostly in autumn and spring).If the disease is not diagnosed in time, a number of complications may occur.
Many people who are prone to this disease are interested in the question - what are stomach ulcers? In medical practice, the following types of stomach ulcers are distinguished:
- Perforated( perforated).
- Ulcer of the antrum of the stomach.
- Cardiac Ulcer.
- Medicinal( medicamental).
- Ulcer with Zollinger-Alison syndrome.
Perforated( ulcerated) stomach ulcer .This is one of the serious complications of the disease, the essence of which is the appearance of a through hole in the wall of the digestive organ. Such a defect entails the formation of a communicative pathway from the stomach to the abdominal cavity. Substances( food residues, gastric acid), falling outside the body, cause inflammation of the abdominal cavity.
About 15% of all patients have a tendency to perforate ulcers. Some patients are skeptical about the statistics, but it should be remembered that this pathology results in a fatal outcome for every sixth patient.
The main cause of perforation are seasonal exacerbations, chronic course of the disease and violations of the principles of dietary nutrition, as well as deep depression caused by psychological shock.
The main symptoms of perforating ulcers:
- Pain shock. It can last up to 4-6 hours. During this period, the acid acts on the nerve endings in the stomach. After a while, the pain spreads throughout the abdominal cavity.
- Imaginary relief. The pain may abate for a while. This is due to the burning of receptors of nerve endings. If you do not take measures, serous fibrosing peritonitis can develop. The white tongue signals the dangerous course of the disease.
- Sepsis( purulent peritonitis).After 12 hours after perforation of the ulcer, it begins to flow with abundant streams of pus. As a result of this, a person often has vomiting. The inflammatory process covers the abdominal cavity.
A small percentage of patients may experience minor bleeding. It occurs because of the contact of the acid medium with the veins. The only effective treatment for the perforation defect is surgical intervention. Stress ulcer of stomach .It is formed as a result of several unfavorable factors, one of which is the activation of the hypothalamus. As a result, against the background of depression, an adrenocorticotropic hormone( ACTH) begins to be produced in the body in an increased amount. In turn, corticosteroid hormones contribute to a decrease in the production of gastric mucus and a decrease in its quality( the basic functionality of mucus is lost).
Corticosteroids interfere with the regeneration processes of the gastric mucosa, promote a rise in the level of histamine. Also catecholamines - secreted substances against the background of a depressive state - cause ischemia( poor blood supply) of the mucous membrane of the digestive organ.
Thus, one of the most dangerous factors triggering the formation of an ulcer develops, a violation of the acid-peptic balance. This leads to an increase in the tone of the vagus nerve.
Stress defects are formed as a result of extreme conditions of the nervous system. They are accompanied by sharp and sharp pains. Very often you can observe bleeding.
Mortality from stress ulcers varies at a level of 3-5%.This indicator is influenced by the course of the disease, timely diagnosis and treatment, as well as the presence of complications.
Ulcer of and antrum of the stomach .The antral department is a low-lying area that divides the body of the stomach with the duodenum. The pervisor is the last point through which food gets from the stomach to further parts of the digestive system of the body.
Diagnosed mainly in people at a young age. The ulcer of the antrum is about 9% of all cases.
- Acidity disorders( elevated level).
- Frequent vomiting with a sour taste.
- Severe heartburn.
- Impulse pain( pain may appear and disappear).
- Heaviness in the middle of the abdomen.
An integrated approach is used to treat the disease. Mostly prescribed medication. Surgical intervention is indicated in extreme cases.
Ulcer of in the cardiac part of the stomach .This disease has a seasonal character and is quite rare. Diagnosed in 4-6% of patients. Often accompanied by unstable pain after eating, a bitter taste in the mouth, a systematic eructation, a feeling of heaviness in an empty stomach. Also signs of ailment are: plaque on the tongue( the tongue is slightly swollen) and pleurisy of the left side( inflammation of the pleural sheets).
Most often found in middle-aged men. The disease has three forms: light, medium and heavy. The first two can be cured with medicines. Heavy form is treated only surgically. The main symptom of the third phase of the disease is a constant pain in the area of the digestive organ.
Drug( medicamentous) stomach ulcer. Similar pathological formations appear as a result of human consumption of certain drugs:
- Corticosteroids. These agents have a ulcerogenic effect on the walls of the stomach.
- Salicylates( Acetylsalicylic acid).Formed for two reasons, the first of which is to reduce the rate of synthesis of prostaglandins. The second is to destroy the mucous barrier of the digestive organ and to facilitate the reverse diffusion of hydrogen ions.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( NSAIDs).Due to long-term use of these drugs, ulcers and erosions in the digestive organ can form.
Usually, the disease occurs without significant symptoms, but it can sharply worsen in the acute stage. The main symptoms of drug ulcers are bleeding and severe cutting pain.
Chronic gastric ulcer .The chronic phase of the disease occurs in the case of a slow prolonged course. Also, if an acute ulcer does not cure for a long time, the disease can go to a chronic stage. This form of ailment is about 32% of all ulcers. When pathology becomes chronic, it is impossible to notice without appropriate diagnosis.
The main symptoms are dyspeptic disorders, severe heartburn, frequent nausea and vomiting after eating, severity in the abdominal area, as well as severe acute pain syndrome. This phase of the disease is characterized by periodic exacerbations, especially seasonal ones.
Callous ulcer of the stomach .One of the most dangerous, which is often a harbinger of stomach cancer. It is formed, mainly, on the small curvature of the organ. In some cases, it can remain open for long without signs of scarring.
Occurs as a result of a chronic course of the disease. Its main symptoms are frequent exacerbation( in addition to seasonal symptoms), manifestations of severe pain syndromes, nausea and vomiting. In most cases, surgical intervention is indicated, because the use of conservative treatment methods does not bring the desired result, but only can shorten the manifestation of symptoms for a short time.
Peptic ulcer of the stomach. Localizes on the mucosa of the lower part of the organ. Very often it develops as a postoperative complication. Helicobacter pylori bacterial infection plays a major role in the formation and development of the peptic defect, as well as the administration of certain drugs. The main symptoms of peptic ulcer are:
- Sharp, cutting pain on an empty stomach( it appears in the area of the entire abdomen).
- Frequent nausea and vomiting in which clots of blood are observed.
- Diarrhea with blood.
- Sharp weight loss.
- Lack of appetite.
As soon as these symptoms are detected, the doctor should be consulted immediately.
Mirror stomach ulcer .The formation of a defect begins with damage to the mucous membrane as a result of the inflammatory process. Under the influence of gastric juice, there is a depression that covers several layers of the wall of the digestive organ.
The main sign of a mirror ulcer is a severe pain that does not stop for a long time. It can occur either before or after a meal. Mirror ulcers, which form in the lower part of the stomach, can hurt when walking.
Such a pathology refers to severely healing defects.
Ulcer and with Zollinger-Alison syndrome ( endocrine).It is formed as a result of a sharp increase in the secretion of gastric juice. This is due to an increase in the level of gastrin in the blood of a person.
Symptoms of such pathological education are typical( pain, heartburn, nausea, vomiting).They appear suddenly and are acute. Difficult to give in to conservative and surgical treatment.
Ulcers of the of the stomach that occur on the soil of other diseases .They are formed mainly against the background of such diseases: renal failure, cirrhosis, hepatitis, pancreatic disease and cardiovascular system( atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure).
The risk of such ulcers is observed in older people( 50-60 years).They are diagnosed as concomitant complications of the underlying disease. According to statistics, only 7-12% of patients have this stomach defect.