Renal cell carcinoma: a clear cell variant, papillary and chromophobic carcinoma, treatment

Oncology of the kidney often proceeds secretly, because the symptoms of the disease are similar to those of other disorders. The kidneys have such a secluded arrangement that it is possible to detect the tumor only when it acquires significant dimensions.

As in cases of oncology of other organs, the success of treatment depends on how timely it was started. To recognize the onset of the disease, it is necessary to imagine how it manifests itself. Useful information for those people who monitor their health, there will be information about prevention.

What is renal cell carcinoma?

The most common type of cancer of the kidney. Among pathologies of the kidney of malignant nature, it accounts for about ninety percent of cases. Although kidney cancer in the general statistics of cancer has only two percent.

Photo of renal cell cancer of the kidneys

Oncology of the kidney, according to observations, chooses the male sex much more often than the female. Features of kidney disease predispose to belated detection of pathology, usually in the fourth part of patients already have metastases.

Types of renal carcinoma

Classification of the disease of renal cell carcinoma depending on the type of affected cells:

  • granular cell carcinoma,
  • adenocarcinoma,
  • chromophobic carcinoma,
  • light-cell renal cell carcinoma,
  • tubular,
  • papillary.

Causes of

  • Bad habit - Smoking increases the risk of kidney cancer twice. In tobacco, there is that kind of carcinogen that damages the kidney.
  • In a male, the disease occurs many times more often than , so belonging to this sex, with respect to oncology of the kidneys, is considered a risk factor.
  • Genetic predisposition. Some diseases associated with genetic disorders, often incidentally, cause a cancerous kidney.
  • Overweight body , according to experts, predisposes to oncological processes in the kidneys.
  • Some diseases contribute to the development of pathology:
    • diabetes mellitus,
    • arterial hypertension,
    • viral infections.
  • Contact with harmful chemicals is capable of provoking cancer of some organs, including kidneys.
  • Being in the ionized radiation zone is a risk factor, from the point of view of oncology.

Symptoms of

The fact that the patient can have a pathological process in the kidney indicates the symptoms:

  • subfebrile temperature,
  • hypertension,
  • pain at the kidney projection site,
  • the presence of blood in urine to varying degrees:
    • a small amount - revealed by analyzes,
    • if the blood is visually determined by changing the color of the urine to, for example, a rusty shade, it means that its presence is in a larger amount;
  • the patient has polycythemia or hypercalcemia,
  • weight loss with normal nutrition and no reason for this,
  • blood test shows anemia and elevated ESR;
  • cachexia,
  • with significant tumor size it is probed during abdominal examination,
  • liver is functioning with impaired
  • in mature pathology:
    • edema of the lower limbs,
    • if metastases develop - bone pain,
    • lymph nodes in the neck area are enlarged,
    • impotence.

Stages of

Depending on how much the tumor formation has developed in size and its spread to other tissues and organs, the problem is classified into four stages:

  1. The first is characterized by a small size of education( within four centimeters).It has a body that has not spread itself anywhere beyond its boundaries.
  2. In the second stage, the size of the pathology can exceed seven centimeters, the tumor has not exceeded the boundaries of the kidney.
  3. The third stage is determined when the formation has spread to the nearest tissues, it is possible in the lymph node to have one metastasis.
  4. Pathology has spread metastases to several lymph nodes and other organs. The process reached the time of the creation of distant metastases.

Diagnostic measures

  • Survey of the doctor together with the patient's questioning about what is bothering him, what hereditary diseases are in the family. To clarify the expected diagnosis, additional studies are being carried out.
  • The ultrasound method provides an image of the internal organs resulting in detailed information on the dislocation and size of the tumor.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging is an accurate diagnosis that allows you to see tissues and organs in the right perspective. Diagnosis of soft tissues with the ability to have a number of detailed images of any zone.
  • Computed tomography also provides accurate information about tissues and organs in any projection. The examination procedure can be performed with the help of a coloring substance introduced into the body, then the organs and problems in them are clearly marked. Tomography is well suited for diagnosing the condition of solid tissues.
  • A blood test that determines what substances are contained in its composition. It makes it possible to assume the disease of a specific organ.
  • An intravenous pyelogram is an X-ray of the kidney after a contrast agent is injected into the blood. Shows the movement of blood and possible obstacles on the way.
  • The analysis of urine is conducted with the purpose to learn by its composition, whether there are inflammatory or other diseases.
  • A biopsy of tumor formation of the kidney is carried out by taking a material with a special needle. Then the sample taken is examined to determine the malignancy of the tumor and its appearance. To diagnose the kidney, the biopsy method is rarely used. Obtaining a sample can cause complications.

Treatment of

    • In the treatment of kidney cancer, chemotherapy is not used in such a large volume as in the treatment of malignant tumors of other organs. This is due to the peculiarities of the kidney tissues not to give a sufficient response to this kind of exposure. All chemotherapy is in some cases used. The procedure is shown in the period before and after surgery.
    • Radiation therapy also has a reduced effect on kidney cancer. The method is sometimes used as an independent type of aid. For example, in the case when the operation for any indication can not be carried out.
    • The main method recommended for oncology of the kidney is surgery. The following surgical options are applied:
      • Removal of the kidney along with adjacent tissues, covered by the pathological process( nephrectomy).
      • An organ-preserving operation is the excision of a tumor with part of the kidney( resection of the organ). It is carried out:
        • when the pathology has not received significant development,
        • if the patient has one kidney,
        • if the tumor process has swept both buds.

        If the kidney needs to be saved, and the disease struck her so that it can not be done, then it can be about replacing the affected kidney with an implant.

        The operation is carried out in different ways:

        • The open method is the most traditional. It is often used for radical removal of the organ. The method is more traumatic, in comparison with closed methods. The patient needs a recovery period after using it.
        • The closed method is laparoscopic. The device enters the kidney through the incisions in the abdomen. A lesser rehabilitation period is required.
    • The immunomodulating method is designed to raise the body's own strengths to combat health problems. The method with kidney pathology has not proved to be very effective.
  • The most modern method of targeting therapy, based on the latest developments in molecular biology. Produced oppression of proteins from which the pathological process is built, and also affect the creation of a tumor by its blood supply to inhibit it.

Prognosis and prevention

Why the cancer is born cancer is not fully known. To measures that are able to prevent the disease to some extent include:

  • Choose a place of stay with the most healthy ecology.
  • Avoid contact with chemicals, especially aromatic amines.
  • Take medication after consulting a specialist.
  • Give up smoking.
  • If a virus is detected, it is more likely to undergo a physical examination and get advice on what to do.
  • If there is a predisposition at the genetic level to such diseases - regularly check the health status in order to prevent unwanted phenomena.
  • Ensure that the weight does not deviate significantly from the norm.

Conference video on targeted therapy for renal cell cancer:

On the surgical treatment of renal cell carcinoma, the following video will tell:

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