Hymenolepiasis is a disease of humans and small rodents that causes parasitic activity of the dwarf chain( Hymenolepis).The latter refers to the genus of tapeworms( its ribbon-like shape is visible in the photo).Other helminths belong to the same genus, for example, bovine and porcine chain, which lead to disruption of the digestive system.
In the photo you can see that the dwarf tsepin consists of a head with 4 suction cups and a bundle of hooks, necessary for fixing the worm on the intestinal wall. In its structure, the cervix and the body are also distinguished, consisting of a plurality of segments. The last, terminal, segments are larger( in the photo and video clearly visible differences), they contain the eggs of the parasite. Periodically, these segments come off and under the action of intestinal enzymes are destroyed. At that moment a large number of eggs of the dwarf chain are released( in bovine there is a similar process), up to 200 pieces in each fragment. They( see photo) have a rounded shape whitish, transparent, sensitive to humidity, heating and cooling. Dwarf tseleen is asexual, i.e.he does not need an individual of a different sex for fertilization, as for example, for the Ascaris, the bull-chain. Eggs immediately after getting into the external environment are contagious. They are excreted from the host organism of the dwarf chain together with the calves.
Paths of infection with a dwarf chain
Eggs of a dwarf chain can penetrate into the human body at the time of ingestion, transmitted through a handshake, household items, toys, utensils. The carriers of the disease can be insects that come into contact with food, in rare cases, mice and rats.
Pathogens penetrate the intestine, where their membranes are destroyed and larvae appear from them. Next comes the invasive stage of the dwarf chain, during which the larvae are introduced into the villi of the intestine. And after 5 days, destroying them, penetrate into the lumen of the intestine and attach to the wall. Here, within a week, a larval metamorphosis takes place in an adult of a dwarf chain. During this period, the patient becomes the final host for the flatworm. Therefore, to the question: "Where does this parasite live in man?" You can unambiguously answer: "In the intestine."
It is possible to re-self-infection from helminths that have emerged directly from the severed segments and are fixed in the intestines of the final host. Thus, dwarf tapeworm can enter the human body in two ways - in the first case, fecal-oral, in the second - by autoinvasion.
Symptoms of the dwarf chain
In many cases, parasitic disease is detected late due to the lack of obvious signs. Often, hymenolepiasis has common symptoms with all helminthiasis:
- abdominal pain, stool disorder, flatulence( intestinal manifestations);
- weakness, loss of appetite, irritability, high fatigue( asthenovegetative manifestations).
Depending on the severity of the disease, the symptoms may manifest itself in the violation of the gastrointestinal tract and the nervous system. People with a dwarf chain have the following complaints:
- increase in temperature to 38 ° C;
- increased salivation, nausea, sometimes vomiting;
- skin itching and other allergic reactions;
- dry mucous, pallor, weight loss;
- convulsions, loss of consciousness.
Another sign that a patient is infected with a dwarf chain is the presence of a large amount of papillomas on his body( see photo).They indicate a chronic decrease in immunity.
For all these symptoms it is impossible to determine precisely whether this disease causes a dwarf tartar or is associated with other causes( for example, with a bovine chain).Before searching for a way to get rid of helminths, you need a laboratory test for accurate diagnosis.
Diagnosis of the dwarf chain
To confirm the diagnosis of hymenolopidosis, tests are performed. The main methods are:
- Koproovoskopiya - microscopic examination of feces for the purpose of identifying eggs;
- The method of enrichment( in this case, the preparations are stained by different methods - according to Füleleborn, Kalantaryan, Kato).
The method of koprooscopy consists in a three-time study of a smear from fresh feces( no later than several hours) with an interval of 2-3 weeks, taking into account the periodicity of egg allocation. They fall into the external environment, depending on the phase of the life cycle.
Only morning stool is used for the enrichment study. Sometimes the doctor prescribes Fenasal in a reduced dose in combination with a laxative to increase the detectability of the eggs of the worm. This medicine destroys the body of a dwarf chain, and a large number of eggs from the detached segments falls into the intestines and is excreted with calves.
Treatment of dwarf tangerine
Treatment of medicines is carried out cyclically, in two approaches with an interval of 5-7 days. This is due to the fact that the medicinal substances affect only the sexually mature dwarf tartar and are harmless to eggs and larvae. To effectively expel flatworms from the body, complex therapy is recommended.
Before starting the use of medicines prescribed by the doctor, it is necessary to prepare all the body systems to reduce the level of intoxication by the products of the vital activity of parasites and to prevent the negative side effects of antiparasitic drugs and to avoid repeated infection by the dwarf chain. During this period, appoint a special diet( table number 13), appoint adsorptive substances for the intestine and hepatoprotectors to improve liver function.
Based on the results of the examination and analysis, the attending physician selects the drug. To date, the most popular drugs for the treatment of dwarf chain are Fenasal or Biltricide( also known as Cesol, Azinox, Praziquantel).
Fenasal acts directly on the dwarf chain, destroying it by breaking the metabolic processes of this helminth.
Fenasal therapy can be carried out according to several schemes:
- two courses for 4 days with a pause of 4-7 her. The medication is taken 4 times a day every 2 hours, or once a day for 2 hours before meals for 2 days.
- six courses for 2 days with an interval of 4-5 days.
Fenasal has no age restrictions in the application. Therefore, it is possible to prescribe it to children of an early age, but the dosage is calculated by a specialist taking into account the age and weight of the child.
Treatment Praziquantel differs in that active substances, acting on a dwarf chain, weaken it, causing it to detach from the wall, and go along with the feces from the intestine of the final host. The use of tablets is prescribed after meals once( before bedtime) or in several receptions with pauses of 5 hours. Scheme of treatment of dwarf chain Praziquantelom appoints a doctor, taking into account the weight and age of the patient.
Contraindications to the use of Biltricide should be considered. These include:
- children under 4 years;
- lactation period.
This drug in some cases causes such side effects as diarrhea, vomiting, headaches.
The purpose of the recovery period is to prevent re-infection and reduce the harmful effects of drugs on the body. At this stage, drugs are prescribed for the normalization of the stool, recovery of the intestinal mucosa damaged by the vital activity of the flatworm, as well as antihistamines. After the treatment and the disappearance of the symptoms, repeated examinations( 4-6 times for 6 months) of feces for helminths are mandatory. In severe cases of hymenolepiasis, dispensary observation can be prescribed up to 1 year.
Treating a dwarf chain with folk remedies
Traditional medicine specialists are concerned about the use of plants in the fight against parasites. But modern research and many years of experience of herbalists and herbalists proves that a properly selected plant with the correct dosage can be used as an additional component in complex therapy. This approach helps to bring the dwarf chain much faster:
- enveloping( Icelandic moss, flax seed, run, white slumber, zizifus);
- anthelmintic( mullein cockroaches, stalker, marigold, European spindle, centipede umbrella, heliotrope) - to remove the dwarf chain;
- for the enhancement of appetite( smoke, veronica, marjoram, watch, fenugreek, wormwood, oregano, comfrey, teeth, ginger,
- tissue regeneration( sea buckthorn, bearberry, barley, elephant sachet, blackrock, physalis)
- toxin removal( anthelmintic,black and white, blackhead, squat, squat, bonanus, belladonna, flax, gray-green);
- restorative and tonic( parsnip, sage, yarrow, mistletoe, hawthorn, licorice, lovage, etc.);
- for abdominal painhyssop, gorichnik Russian, linseed, volostushka, f
- restoration and protection of the liver( papa, yellowfiol, catchment, centipedes, hops, hawks, verbena, anis, droke).
When asked how to banish the dwarf chain from the intestine, herbalists can advise using powder fromthree high-efficiency plants - herbs of wormwood, carnations and tansy flowers. You can look at the appearance of these plants in the photo, but it is better to prevent helminthiasis with the help of prophylaxis than to treat it with folk or traditional methods.
Prevention of dwarf chain
To prevent infection with a dwarf chain, strict hygiene and thorough cleaning are necessary. The main risk group are children. Therefore, in childhood it is necessary to take an analysis for worms. Recommended frequency - once a year, if the child is attending kindergarten or junior school. Analyzes are also recommended for personnel in contact with babies. Patients with hymenolopidosis it is important to timely identify and apply timely measures, to examine family members and contacting people.
The destruction of eggs of a dwarf chain occurs only under the influence of high temperatures. To treat dishes in children's institutions, they use boiling water( they are rinsed) or dry steam( washing in dishwashers).Clean dishes should be stored in dry closed cabinets, preventing contact with flies. Fighting these insects is recommended on a regular basis.
The processing of vegetables and fruits can be carried out with hot water, lowering the products into it for 15 minutes. Low temperatures of the refrigerator( -3-4 ° C) are also effective. Therefore, food products are placed for 45 minutes in the refrigerator after thorough washing in running water.
Especially dangerous is rest in countries with a hot climate. Traveling on them, you should pay special attention to the prevention of parasitic diseases and observe the rules of personal hygiene.