How to determine if a person is infected with worms? Manifestations of helminthiosis have a pronounced polymorphism, that is, they are very diverse. Therefore, such symptoms are found in many diseases and the clinical picture can not always accurately establish the diagnosis of helminthic invasion. Therefore, in the diagnosis of tapeworm, a thorough survey and parasitological study, conducted with the help of laboratory methods, is of great importance. Conducting instrumental studies( X-ray diagnostics, ultrasound, MRI) allows you to visualize the specific damage to organs where helminths have settled.
Laboratory diagnostics of the chain is divided into 4 types:
- Macroscopic - examination with a normal eye without magnification;
- Microscopic - the use of magnifying technology for research;
- Immunological - determination of the level of immunoglobulins produced when a chain enters the patient;
- Genetic - PCR analysis.
Analyzes for the
Chain The material for any kind of analysis can be:
- Cal is most often used, given the prevalence of intestinal localization in most helminths;
- Soskob with perianal folds, where creepers creep out at night;
- Bile, contents of the 12-colon( duodenal contents);
- Sputum( especially informative when analyzing for paragonimosis);
- Mucus from the rectum;
- Muscle tissue obtained by biopsy;
- Sections of the skin( this is the analysis for onchocerciasis).
The goal of macroscopy is visualization of visible worms or their large fragments( segments, heads, scraps).Practically always for the study used feces. In the microscopic analysis, eggs and larvae of the helminth are found. For this analysis, feces, mucus, scrapes, sputum, muscles, skin sections and blood are used.
Immunological tests are conducted to confirm many infestations in which parasites are located within an organ or tissue and therefore are not secreted into the environment. The essence of the method in determining specific immunoglobulins - antibodies to the chain, which the immune system produces against the causative helminth. If such immunoglobulins are present in the patient's blood, they will stick together with the antigens of the worms that are part of the laboratory reagent, forming a sediment or clouding. For example, if the immune complexes circulate in the blood of the patient to the chain, they will enter the tube in a reaction with a specially isolated antigen of the chainworm.
Unlike macro and microscopic analyzes, this species allows one to trace the change in the immune response as it reacts to the presence of a genetically alien material. For normal immunity, specific changes in the course of invasion by worms are characteristic, incl. Chain.
There is another method of research based on the study of genetic material - PCR analysis. It allows to determine the presence of DNA or RNA of the chain. However, this kind of diagnosis will not let you know how much the infection is. It allows you to assess whether there is helminthic invasion or not.
The doctor determines the specific type of research required.it depends on the preferred location of the helminth.
Detecting the chain can be variously, depending on the type:
- Teniosis or porcine tapeworm - identification of eggs in perianal scrapings, joints in feces, immunodiagnostics;
- Diphyllobothriasis, dwarf tseleen - visualization of eggs in feces.
How do I know if there is a tapeworm?
The soliloquy in everyday use is called bovine tapeworm. This name is due to the fact that usually this helminth parasitizes in the host organism in a single copy( "tapeworm" - means one, only).This parasite can reach 4-12 meters in length. As a rule, the disease caused by it, manifests itself in the form of a slight digestive disorder - nausea, heartburn, vomiting, stool disorders. Identify tapeworm can be if there is a loss of body weight with a simultaneous increased appetite.
You can determine the tapeworm independently, by finding fragments in the form of segments after defecation. Similarly proglottids( joints) can actively creep out or passively stand out between acts of defecation, which makes possible their detection on underwear and bed. Confirms the diagnosis of laboratory diagnosis. Probably accidental detection of a chain in endoscopic examination( pictured).
To determine fascioliasis, opisthorchiasis, clonorchiasis it is necessary to detect eggs of helminths in duodenal contents and feces, as well as immunodiagnostics.
How do you know if there are tartar larvae and where are they? A positive result with echinococcosis and cysticercosis( infection with larvae of porcine tapeworm), trichinosis, toxocarosis will be obtained using immunological diagnostics. With these helminthiases, which are called "tissue", parasite larvae are located inside the organ or tissue, and therefore can not be found in feces or other materials. Therefore, immunological tests are used. To check the organs for the presence of larvae of bovine tapeworm, echinococcus use additionally radiography, ultrasound, MRI and endoscopy.