Doxorubicin is one of the anthracycline antibiotics that has a cytostatic effect. It was first obtained in the 60s of the last century. It is produced semi-synthetically from Daunorubicin and the microorganisms Streptomyces coeruleorubidus or Streptomyces peucetius.
Composition, form of production and storage conditions
Produced in vials. Lyophilizate for solution manufacturing. In one container 10 ml. In the carton 10 pcs. Concentrate for the preparation of a solution of 5 ml in a bottle, as well as 25 and 50 ml. In the last two cases, one bottle contains one bottle.
Keep in a place protected from sunlight. Regardless of the form of release, you can not freeze the medicine. Optimal temperature storage for the concentrate is 2-8 degrees, for the lyophilizate - up to 5 degrees. Shelf life 24 months
Produced in Russia, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Israel, Austria, Belgium, India, China. In all cases, doxorubicin is the main active substance.
Indications for use
The drug is used to treat various:
Proven efficacy for:
- Wilms tumor,
- trophoblastic formations,
- small cell lung cancer,
- breast cancer.
Helps with oncological pathologies and other organs. Used to prevent relapse after surgical procedures.
Do not use the drug when hypersensitivity to the active ingredient, with depressed bone marrow. If the latter is the result of the use of chemotherapy drugs or radiation therapy.
Contraindications include: ulcers, bleeding, cystitis, tuberculosis, pregnancy and lactation .
Restriction to use - age up to 24 months and after 70. This is due to the possibility of increasing cardiotoxic action. Restriction is also heart disease.
Mechanism of action
The drug binds DNA and inhibits the synthesis of nucleic acids. The sensitivity of the cells increases when found in the S and G2-phases.
Has antimycotic and antiproliferative effect. Activates free radicals, acts on cell walls. Because of this, DNA replication is inhibited.
Instructions for use Doxorubicin
The drug is used in combination with other cytostatic medicines or as a monotherapy. The lyophilizate is diluted with water for injection or saline( 0.9%).In this case, the proportion 1: 1 is observed.
For intravenous administration, it is administered within 3-10 minutes. Medical personnel should check that before the procedure the needle is exactly in the vein.
Dosage for intravenous administration:
- Monotherapy.60-70 mg per 1 square.m body surface. Every three weeks. The dose is administered once, but its separation is allowed to reduce cardiotoxicity.
- Combined treatment. Assigns 30-60 mg / square.m. Management takes place every 3-4 weeks. The subsequent treatment is possible only in the absence of signs of poisoning and changes in the blood test.
The total amount of the injected drug can not be more than 550 mg / sq.m. If earlier the patient was prescribed other cardiotoxic drugs, then the upper limit is 450.
When exposed to tumors of the urinary bladder, 30-50 mg is determined for one use, depending on why the agent is being administered. Less dose for preventive treatment. Break between the procedures from a week to a month.
Side effect of
- From the side of the heart and circulatory system: heart failure, dyspnea, arrhythmia. Possible development of lethal and irreversible cardiomyopathy. In the process of treatment may appear: myocarditis, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia.
- From the digestive tract: nausea and vomiting, esophagitis, stomatitis. In rare cases, anorexia and diarrhea are noted.
- On the part of the genitourinary system : nephropathy, burning in the bladder and ureter, hematuria.
Sometimes the darkening of the soles, palms, nails develops, a skin rash appears. Body temperature may rise. When ingested, the surrounding tissue develops necrosis.
If the dose is incorrectly selected, there is an increase in toxic effects. Symptomatic treatment, exposure to antibacterial drugs is used.
In the process of use, blood parameters are monitored, liver function checked.a study of the work of the heart is required. It is not allowed to mix in one syringe with other antineoplastic compounds.
Doxorubicin increases the toxicity of other agents. Especially it strongly affects the gastrointestinal tract.
With the simultaneous use of medication and other cytotoxic drugs, cardiac performance is monitored throughout the treatment.
On the background of exposure, it is possible to increase hemorrhagic cystitis. Streptozotocin increases the half-life of the drug.
When used together with cicosporin, the concentration of both drugs in the blood increases. This increases the risk of developing immunosuppression. Hypatotactic active substances of medicines increase the toxicity of the described preparation.
Patients say that in combination with taxotere is difficult to tolerate. There are chemical burns, other organs suffer. Some after the treatment, hair falls out, the disease again makes itself felt through long time intervals.
Price for Moscow
The cost of Doxorubicin affects the policy of the manufacturer. On average, one bottle of 10 mg will cost 275 rubles. Lyophilizate for a solution of 50 mg - 700 rub. Concentrate 2 mg ml costs from 350 rubles.
The price depends on the number of bottles in the package. The minimum is 140 rubles, and the maximum is 1300.
Analogs of Doxorubicin
Doxorubicin-Teva, Doxorubicin-Lance, Doxorubicin-Ferein, Doxorubicin-Ebave, Doxorubicin hydrochloride.
Synonyms for the preparation
Adriamycin, Adryblastine, Blastocin, Doxolum, Doxorubicin-Lance, Kelix, Rastocin.