When the dolichosigma is diagnosed in adults and children, its symptoms are difficult to confuse with other gastrointestinal diseases. There is a similar pathology very often: according to statistics, every fourth person can complain about characteristic signs, almost every second child suffering from chronic adult constipation has an elongated sigmoid colon. Normally, the length of the designated area is 30-45 cm. This is the normigma. If the length of the sigmoid region of the colon is less, a diagnosis of brachisigma is made, if more - dolichosigma. When the intestine is not elongated, but expanded, the condition is called megadolioschigma.
Usually the symptoms of dolichosigma manifest themselves depending on the stage of development of pathology. When there is an elongation of the sigmoid loop, two loops or more are formed that have pathological mobility. The more loops are formed, the brighter the symptoms, the heavier is the condition of the patient:
- The first, the lightest, compensated dolichosigma, the symptoms are painless: there are three-day constipation accompanied by great discomfort in the abdomen. Normalize the chair helps diet and light laxatives, enemas do not need to, the stool has a slightly denser structure.
- The second, the symptoms of dolichosigma of moderate severity at the stage of subcompensation, indicate the presence of uninterrupted constipation, the stomach constantly hurts, the pains are accompanied by a strong swelling. At this stage, laxatives practically do not work. Defecation becomes possible only after the application of cleansing enemas. Colonoscopy shows the first endoscopic signs of dolichosigma - inflammation and swelling of the intestinal walls. Answering the question, whether the lower abdomen can ache with dolichosigma, physicians pay attention to the phenomenon of partial obstruction. Fecal stasis stimulates peristalsis, the intestine tries to push the mucus by itself, but the lengthening of the sigmoid colon does not allow this, increased gas formation can cause pain in the lower abdomen.
- The third stage is decompensated dolichosigma, constipation becomes chronic, lasts up to two weeks, the stomach hurts, not stopping, but not down, and around the navel, there are pronounced signs of intoxication. The patient complains of loss of appetite, severe nausea, the temperature increases to 38 degrees. Skin color becomes grayish, pustules appear on the face - symptoms of the most difficult stages can not be confused with anything. For this stage, the appearance of sheep feces is characteristic, stony debris is often found, which can only be eliminated by siphon enemas. In some cases, intestinal obstruction is formed, then the operation becomes inevitable.
Constipation and pain in dolichosigma
The clinical picture of the described disease is very typical, the symptoms of intestinal dolichosigma directly indicate its presence. Let's designate the brightest of them:
- When pathology is formed, persistent constipation appears. In children, they arise because of the introduction of the first complementary foods or during weaning. At the older age, at six-seven, the symptoms become the same as in adults: evacuation occurs every three days, the frequency of such blockages increases, sheep feces appear, chronic constipation, the treatment of which is complex. Note! Dolihosigma without constipation does not happen.
- Over time, there is a pathological expansion of the colon, additional loops appear, it is they who are to blame for the fact that the patient almost completely disappears desires for emptying, that is, constipations are formed.
- Another characteristic symptom is fecal incontinence, which is why underwear in adults and in children is always dirty.
- The more neglected the disease, the harder the stools become. When passing, they easily injure the walls of the colon, as a result of this, scarlet blood can appear in the act of defecation. Colonoscopy shows the characteristic endoscopic signs of dolichosigma: inflammation of the walls and damage to the integrity of the mucosa.
- Pain is localized in the near-umbilical region, the abdomen hurts quite often, the last decompensated stage is characterized by constant, non-abating spastic pain in the left side of the ileum. Many people want to know if there can be a bubbling in the abdomen and increased gas production in dolichosigma? Maybe, and quite strong. At the same time, gases do not go off well to release them, it is necessary to take the appropriate pose, and this is not always convenient. It is the accumulation of gases that often becomes the cause of spasmodic pain. It intensifies against the backdrop of any physical activity and always abates when the patient manages to go to the toilet and empty the intestines. When the feces come out, it has a fetid odor, a compacted consistency and a large fraction. In form, it can resemble either sheep feces or fir cones. And these are also the symptoms of dolichosigma.
Often, dolichosigma is accompanied by symptoms of other diseases of the digestive system, pancreatitis, gastroduodenitis, colitis and chronic dysbiosis, so the patient can complain about heartburn and eructation, and increased gas formation and pain, which can manifest in various parts of the body. It is the presence of a concomitant disease that explains and very rare diarrhea with dolichosigma. With the formation of pathology, constipation occurs, it begins to gradually rot, putrefactive reactions give rise to bubbling and the accumulation of gases, but extra loops become an obstacle to their natural excretion, this circumstance gives an answer to the question why in the case of dolichosigm the gases emerge badly and severe pain appears.
Other characteristic symptoms can only be determined by a physician with a visual examination of the patient.
Characteristics of dolichosigma
What are the visual signs of this disease? Collecting anamnesis, the doctor notes the following symptoms: excessive fullness of the waist and pallor of the skin. Palpation allows you to detect congestion in the bowels of calves and a completely empty rectum with a crowded large intestine.
X-ray shows sinuous loops of the sigmoid section, which are pathological in nature. To determine how much evacuation functions are expressed, it is possible with the help of sphincterometry and electromyography. Endoscopy is also shown, endoscopic signs of lengthening of the sigmoid colon indicate a change in the mucous membrane of the large intestine, the presence of inflammation, the phenomenon of irritable bowel syndrome, and cracks in the anus. When performing endoscopy, a puncture is always taken.
Continuing to describe the symptoms, it is necessary to note the side effects. Because of fecal stagnation( constipation) is poor absorption of vitamins by the body, the lack of such elements can manifest itself in the form of a broad clinical picture, characteristic of beriberi. There are signs of self-poisoning with metabolic products( nausea, vomiting, pallor of the skin, bad breath, white dry plaque in the tongue, severe pain).
Another characteristic symptom of dolichosigma of the intestine is an increase in the circumference of the waist with a sharp weight loss. The lack of vitamins and minerals causes the fragility of nails and hair, the formation of cracks in the corners of the mouth.
Today dolichosigma is a disease that can be easily treated. The last stages of pathology and severe pains occur in adults only because of inattention and connivance of the patient himself, and because of parental irresponsibility in children. When applying diet and adequate treatment, it is possible to easily suppress all the above symptoms and avoid dangerous complications, to the development of which may result in dolichosigma.